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Courtweek.com - Archives: 2011November 1, 2011The Law of Post-Halloween Legal StandardsToday is All Saints Day or All Hallows, a holy day of obligation for some. To others, it's just the day after Halloween -- a day they forget was once merely All Hallows Eve. Some spend All Hallows recovering from the revelry of the night before, and some are still on the streets in the wee hours of the holy day. Our Case of the Week examines once such alleged citizen on the streets and the unfortunate lesson she learned about differing standards of legal review in a California appellate decision handed down last week.Let's Make a DealAngelique Bongiovanni found herself in the legal system in 2009, charged with possession of methamphetamine in two separate cases. In a deal that would come back to haunt her on the day after Halloween, she made a plea bargain in one of the cases. Under the plea agreement, Ms. Bongiovanni pleaded no contest, and was placed on probation for three years. As an added bonus, her 365-day jail sentence was suspended to run concurrently with the sentence from her other drug bust.It seemed like a good deal at the time, and it would have been...if only she hadn't allegedly been out with the witches, warlocks, goblins, and alleged gang members on the streets of Los Angeles on All Hallows 2009.All Hallows HijinksOn Nov. 1, 2009, Wendy Diaz lived with her husband and three children in a Los Angeles neighborhood with a gang problem. Perhaps not unlike Chauncey and Wadsworth fighting over tee times, the proper procedure for shaking martinis, or the best way to train a polo pony, Ms. Diaz's neighborhood faced fights from the gentlemen and ladies of the rival gangs, "Vincent Town," and "Columbus Street." Police arrested a Columbus Street gang member for breaking into the Diaz home.After taking her children trick-or-treating on Halloween evening, Ms. Diaz ventured outside at approximately 1:00 in the morning of All Hallows to look for a friend parking on the street. Instead, Ms. Diaz said she saw Ms. Bongiovanni accompanied by a companion in a pumpkin costume.According to Ms. Diaz, Ms. Bongiovanni proceeded to engage in an expletive-laden tirade of threats. To accommodate the gentle readers of Courtweek.com who would rather witness a debate between Chauncey and Wadworth on the best ways to make covert contributions to the Republican National Committee instead of enduring the vile threats of alleged gang members, we will attempt to sanitize the vulgarity of Ms. Bongiovanni's alleged utterances.Ms. Diaz said Ms. Bongiovanni approached her and called her an [expletive deleted] snitcher, adding, "You been [expletive deleted] snitching.""You and your family are coming down," Ms. Bongiovanni stated allegedly, as she is said to have added for emphasis, "You [expletive deleted] rata," and "[expletive deleted] all biccicletas."To assist our readers in appreciating the full flavor of Ms. Bongiovanni's supposed soliloquy, we should note that each deleted expletive is a version of the same slang word referring to an act of sexual intimacy. In addition, "rata" can refer to a Soviet fighter plane from the 1930s, plants from the Metrosideros genus in New Zealand, or rat in Spanish. We'll let you decide which one Ms. Bongiovanni might have meant. Also, biccicletas is a derivation of the Spanish word for bicycles. Seems innocuous enough. However, in Ms. Bongiovanni's case, People v. Bongiovanni, California's Second District Court of Appeal noted biccicletas was also a term Columbus Street gang members used as a sign of disrespect or "dissing" in gangspeak when addressing the upstanding citizens of the Vincent Town gang.Ms. Diaz reported the incident to police the same day and gave law enforcement a description of the woman who threatened her. She then identified Ms. Bongiovanni from a photo line up. Police knew Ms. Bongiovanni to be a member of the Columbus Street gang for almost a decade and that she went by the gang name, "Diabla." It wasn't difficult police work...Ms. Bongiovanni sported Columbus Street gang tattoos on her body. If that weren't enough, police said she also admitted she was a member.Winning 10-2?However, nifty tattoos notwithstanding, Ms. Bongiovanni denied she was a member of the gang at trial. In addition, Ms. Bongiovanni noted she was approximately 50 pounds heavier than Ms. Diaz had described her. Then again, it was Halloween, and with her friend in that pumpkin costume, she probably got a lot of candy. Despite Ms. Diaz's testimony and police testimony citing various Columbus Street gang activities including murder, assaults, car theft, and narcotics distribution, the jury deadlocked, and it's vote was 10-2 in favor of acquitting Ms. Bongiovanni. The court declared a mistrial and thus granted prosecutors' motion to dismiss the charges pursuant to California Penal Code section 1385.So, it was time for Ms. Bongiovanni to do the happy dance. Sure, she was on probation, but the charges were dropped. No probation violation there...or so she thought.At an ensuing probation violation hearing, Ms. Bongiovanni argued she had not violated her probation in the All Hallows morning incident. She claimed the whole thing was a case of mistaken identity, and she argued the jury's 10-2 vote in her favor showed she hadn't done anything wrong.Most members of the jury may have believed her, but the judge wasn't buying it. More importantly, for purposes of sending Ms. Bongiovanni to the slammer for a probation violation, the opinions of those 10 jurors didn't matter.You see, California probation violation determinations differ from a criminal trial in that the fact-finder in a probation violation hearing is the judge -- not a jury. In addition, where in a criminal trial, the legal standard is proof beyond a reasonable doubt, in a probation violation hearing, the standard is only a preponderance of the evidence. In other words, there can be a fair amount of doubt as to whether you did it, but if the judge weighs the evidence, and there's more evidence indicating guilt rather than innocence, you lose.In Ms. Bongiovanni's case, the judge noted the cops testified at trial that she was a member of the Columbus Street gang, a Columbus Street member was arrested in connection with the break-in at the Diaz home, and that Ms. Diaz identified Ms. Bongiovanni as the woman who threatened her. In the minds of 10 of 12 jurors, that wasn't enough to prove anything beyond a reasonable doubt. However, under the preponderance of the evidence standard, that's all the judge needed.In upholding the trial court's decision that Ms Bongiovanni violated her probation, California's Second District Court of Appeal wrote, "Appellant's argument that a jury vote of of 10-2 for acquittal supports her credibility is not persuasive because the fact finder in the probation violation hearing was the trial judge, not the jury. Because probation revocation differs substantially from criminal prosecution and the facts supporting the revocation need only be proved by a preponderance of the evidence, we find substantial evidence to support the trial court's finding that the appellant violated her probation."So, Ms. Bongiovanni had her probation revoked, and it was three years of incarceration for her. The moral of this week's Case of the Week: if you're on probation and walking around with a giant pumpkin on All Hallows, study legal standards of review before you go calling someone an [expletive deleted] Soviet fighter plane. __________________________October 22, 2011The Law of Flying DwarfsThose readers who enjoyed -- or perhaps didn't enjoy -- this writer's On Trial column in The National Law Journal may remember the saga of Dave the Dwarf. He fought to save the Constitution...while saving his livelihood in dwarf tossing. To commemorate the 10th anniversary of Dave the Dwarf's epic legal battle--and because a Florida state representative is now trying to do in the legislature what Dave could not do in the courts--we now revisit the Law of Dwarf Tossing...and what it tells us about the 5th and 14th Amendments to the United States Constitution...as well as legislative and regulatory drafting in the state of Florida.Big Fun in a Little PackageDavid Flood is a gentleman of somewhat small stature: three foot two, to be exact. He's also a Tampa, Fla., radio personality and quasi-celebrity. Known as Dave the Dwarf to his legions of little listeners and big fans on Tampa's 93.3 FLZ radio, Mr. Flood also has had a side business, and that's what made him a legal star. You see, for a fee, you could bring Dave the Dwarf to your birthday party, St. Patrick's Day festival, bar mitzvah, or Millard Fillmore Inauguration Day celebration, and Dave would let you engage in the time-honored tradition of dwarf tossing.That's right, you could put little Dave in a harness and toss him to your heart's content. Dwarf tossing was a cultural phenomenon in the 1980s. It was the biggest thing since Members Only jackets. It seemed a good time was being had by all, as tiny torpedoes of humanity went airborne at parties.That was, until the Little People of America and their friends in the Florida Legislature intercepted the toss.Little LobbyistsNot everyone was amused by this zany brand of miniature fun. Among the concerned populace was a public interest organization known as Little People of America, Inc. The non-profit organization provides support and information to people of short stature, and states it is the only dwarfism support organization providing services to those afflicted with all of the over 200 types of dwarfism.Little People and others lobbied the Florida Legislature, and the result was the passage of Section 561.665, Florida Statutes, governing activities involving exploitation of people with Dwarfism in establishments selling alcohol.Not all little people supported the law, and one of them was Dave the Dwarf.Dave the Dwarf sued then-Florida Governor Job Bush in an attempt to overturn the law, arguing the law was an unconstitutional violation of his rights under the Due Process Clause of the 5th Amendment and the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment.Specifically, Dave the Dwarf argued in Flood v. Bush, No. 8:01cv02261 M.D. Fla. Filed Nov. 28, 2001, that his due process rights were violated because the law failed to properly define those covered by the law, making the law unconstitutionally vague. He argued also that the law violated his equal protection rights because the law treated him differently than others. For instance, you could be tossed, I could be tossed, and Oprah Winfrey could be tossed with a great degree of difficulty, but Dave the Dwarf could not be tossed...or so he thought.Banned or Not?The governor's lawyers swung into action in an attempt to toss Dave the Dwarf right out of court. They argued dwarfs needed protection. Dave counted that was hogwash. Also, in addition to maintaining Gov. Bush should be dismissed from the suit, the Florida Attorney General's Office argued that there was no constitutional violation because the law didnt really ban dwarf tossing.Turns out they were right.The law itself banned only "undertaking or permitting any contest or promotion or other form of recreational activity involving exploitation endangering the health, safety, and welfare of any person with dwarfism" in establishments selling alcoholic beverages. Nowhere did the law ban dwarf tossing specifically.Dave the Dwarf argued dwarf tossing was good for his welfare because he made money doing it. Note the language is "health, safety, and welfare," as opposed to "health, safety, or welfare." Dave the Dwarf might have been better off leaving the law alone, continuing his aerial acrobatics, and arguing he was in compliance with the law because dwarf tossing promoted his welfare.As it was, the trial court tossed Dave out of the courthouse, holding the law did not ban dwarf tossing and that -- although the law mandated that the Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco of Floridas Department of Professional Regulation promulgate regulations on the issue -- they had failed to do it. While the regulators may have been out at the beach listening to Jimmy Buffet tunes and drinking margaritas, Dave the Dwarf could have been spending his days flying through the warm Florida breezes.So why is Florida State Rep. Ritch Workman trying to repeal the law while everyone from Jon Stewart to your short Uncle Freddy is weighing in on the issue?Well, it appears those regulators finally finished getting wasted away in Margaritaville, cruised on back home to Tallahassee, and did some regulating.The Oprah RuleThe Division promulgated Section 3.048 of Chapter 61A of its regulations, entitled, "Exploitation of Dwarfs." Unlike their friends in the Legislature, the regulators did more precise drafting and included dwarf tossing specifically. The regulation provided in subsection 2: "Any activity described as dwarf-tossing is specifically included within those acts of exploitation prohibited by this rule."Of course, there was also subsection 3, which could be called the Oprah Rule. It provided: "Nothing contained herein shall be construed to prohibit dwarfs from engaging in non-exploitative sporting or recreational events of the type engaged in by persons who are not dwarfs."So now we've come full circle: Oprah Winfrey can be tossed if one has a large catapult, but Dave the Dwarf is, once again, left out of all the fun...unless Rep. Workman has his way. His bill, HB 4063, is pending in the Florida Legislature. In the meantime, you can catch Dave the Dwarf on his radio show, What Would The Dwarf Do?, where presumably, he is not being tossed...at least not yet.__________________________August 25, 2011The Law of Wiener WarsOnce the gentleman from New York's Ninth Congressional District resigned his House seat for exposing his wiener, you may have thought you would be finished with bad wiener jokes for a while. You would be wrong.This week, mighty corporate litigants have been battling it out in the U.S. District Court for Northern District of Illinois in a wacky wiener war. The case of Sara Lee Corp. V. Kraft Foods Inc., features charges of hot dog blasphemy. Sara Lee, the makers of Ball Park Franks, and Kraft, the friendly folks bringing you the venerable Oscar Mayer wiener, both claim the other has disparaged its products in violation of federal and state law.Seriously though, we all read Upton Sinclair's The Jungle in school. Thus, everyone thinks hot dogs are comprised of animal parts swept up off the factory floor anyway. How can one disparage a hot dog?Oh, I Wish I Were...Sara Lee fired the first shot in the Weiner War, suing Kraft in May 2009, claiming Kraft violated both the federal Trademark Act of 1946, 15 U.S.C. 1051 et seq., known commonly as the "Lanham Act," the Illinois Consumer Fraud and Deceptive Practices Act, and other Illinois state laws.In its federal complaint, Sara Lee alleged Kraft claimed falsely that Oscar Mayer wieners were the "100% pure beef hot dog" when it knew Oscar Meyer wieners contained other mouth-watering ingredients, such as sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, sodium phosphates, salt, corn syrup, and dextrose. Sara Lee claimed non-beef ingredients comprised approximately 20 percent of an Oscar Meyer wiener. Of course, Sara Lee conceded that most of this non-beef 20 percent was water.Sara Lee claimed Ball Park Franks were disadvantaged becausebeing the honest dudes they are Sara Lee would not compete with Oscars little lies by claiming falsely that Ball Park Franks were 100 percent pure beef.But, Oscar Meyers alleged crimes against humanity and hot dog harmony didn't end there.In advertising paraphrasing Oscar Mayers famous jingles for its hot dogs and bologna, Kraft claimed, The best tasting beef hot dog has a name. Its O-S-C-A-R, and These days, its Ball Park and Hebrew National who are wishing they were an Oscar Mayer wiener. In addition, Kraft invited customers to Try the taste that knocked the others out of the park.Just as it claimed the 100 percent beef claim was false, Sara Lee claimed these comparisons against its hot dog were false as well.Sara Lees attorney, Richard Leighton of Washington, D.C.'s Keller and Heckman LLP, claimed the evil Oscar Mayer even cheated on taste tests, claiming testers were served boiled Ball Park franks on a paper plate with no bun, no ketchup, no mustard, nothing.It must have been a big taste test error because the bouquet of the sodium lactate and dextrose really pairs well with mustard.Not only were these claims placed in print and electronic media, Sara Lee claimed Kraft even put them on its Wienermobile, a vehicle described by Sara Lee as a hot dog-shaped vehicle that promotes Oscar Mayer and its products in interstate commerce.Have you ever seen the Wienermobile? This writer has. It looks like a rolling phallic sex toy designed to appeal to the prurient interest in violation of the U.S. Supreme Courts holding in Miller v. California.Sara Lee argued that, by making these allegedly false claims in interstate commerce, Kraft violated section 43a1B of the Lanham Act. Section 43a1B prohibits false or misleading advertising or marketing that damages another's product. In addition, Sara Lee argued these false claims violated the applicable Illinois state laws.Not surprisingly, Oscar Mayer saw things differently.My [Fill in the Blank] Has a First NameMighty Oscar fought back, counterclaiming against Ball Park's protective corporate mother, Sara Lee. Kraft argued the 100 percent beef was accurate because, although Oscar Mayer contained additives, beef was the only meat in Oscar Mayer. In addition, Kraft believed it needed to illustrate Oscar's beefiness because of the public perception that hot dogs contain mystery meats.Damn you, Upton Sinclair!In addition, Kraft argued Sara Lee had its own hot dog advertising shenanigans.In a corporate legal battle example of Pee-wee Hermann's famous retort, "I know you are, but what am I?," Kraft argued Sara Lee made its own false claims about how much beef there was in Oscar's tubesteak. In addition, Kraft argued Sara Lee mislead consumers with taste tests by professional chefs proclaiming that Ball Park was America's best franks.All jokes aside, the Wiener War in Sara Lee Corp. V. Kraft Foods Inc., may change the way companies market their products and establish limits for what merchants can say about their products and their competitors in advertising.Meanwhile, the court battle continues with weighty questions, such as "Do a bunch of San Francisco chefs know anything about Chicago hot dogs?" and, if you thought hot dog litigation was bad, just wait until companies start suing each other over other meats lots of people hate.When commenting on the litigation, Sara Lee's Ball Park product director, Chuck Hemmingway said, "Simply put, we believe that these untrue statements are a bunch of bologna."First, they attack Oscar's hot dogs, and now Oscar's bologna? Mr. Hemmingway may want to watch out for the speeding Wienermobile. Oscar is not happy.____________________________August 12, 2011The Law of A&E's Reality TV TroublesReality television tends to get lots of people into lots of trouble. From going to the slammer for failing to pay taxes on reality winnings to shooting sweet, innocent puppies with arrows, reality TV contestants have often been models of bad behavior. But what happens when it's the reality show's network getting in trouble? Our Case of the Week examines what happens when a reality show insinuates falsely that a woman tried to smuggle drugs into a jail via her vaginal cavity.Family DayMarlorita Battle was minding her own business visiting her husband, an inmate at the Riverbend Maximum Security Institution in Nashville, Tenn. Little did she know she was about to become a big, big star.On the day she chose to visit the prison, the A&E Television Network reality show, The Squad: Prison Police, was there, too. The Riverbend facility apparently had a drug problem, and there were allegations the contraband made its way into the prison compliments of visiting family members.It was time for some riveting reality TV drama.The episode of The Squad: Police Prison entitled, Conspiracy, began with Tennessee Corrections Special Agent John Fisher describing the Riverbend prison's drug problem. He noted that an informant had indicated a woman was smuggling drugs into the prison on a regular basis."We're expecting this lady today," Agent Fisher said, as A&E splashed Mr. Battle's face on the screen.As Ms. Battle began what might have been a pleasant visit with her husband and small child, the A&E cameras moved in, and agent Fisher said, "We've identified the female subject and inmate," as a mugshot of Ms. Battles husband is shown to television viewers.Keystone Kops and the Nitty GrittyMs. Battle's husband had the toddler on his lap, and the couple sat next to each other. Ms. Battle's husband caressed her, and then Ms. Battle visited the restroom, causing Agent Fisher to use his supposedly excellent cop skills to determine a crime was in progress. Not unlike the Keystone Kops, Agent Fisher and his bumbling band of merrymen swung into action."Hold on now, she's going to the bathroom," Agent Fisher says, adding, "Typically, these women hide stuff up their vaginal cavity [sic] and then go to the restroom to take it out. Now we are starting to get to the nitty gritty."The camera then shows the doors to the bathroom, triggering more amazingly astute analysis from Agent Fisherthis time its about the size of Ms. Battles bladder and her efficiency in the latrine."There she is, right there. See how fast she went in there. She didn't have time to pee," Agent Fisher says.Apparently, Agent Fisher, unaware of a bygone era when gentlemen and ladies would not utter the verb, "pee," on national television, has a special mathematical formula for computing travel times for urine through the urethra and into the toilet, hand washing, mirror check, and egress from a restroom.Ms. Battle, allegedly carrying something in her hand, proceeded to kiss her husband, A&E provided a crashing cymbal sound to enhance the reality TV drama, and Agent Fisher exclaimed, "Some [expletive deleted] just happened. I think we got 'em. I think we got them."It was time for the brave men of law enforcement to swing into action with A&E there to capture all the zany fun.First, they conducted a strip-search, and then, they placed Ms. Battle's husband in a so-called "dry cell." Its called a dry cell because there's no running water, and thus, no way to get rid of contraband.They kept Ms. Battle's husband in the dry cell for 24 hours. He neither urinated nor defecated any contraband.After releasing Ms. Battle's husband from the dry cell, Agent Fisher called the incident a "false alarm," but he added more commentary during the closing credits of The Squad: Prison Police that would become significant in subsequent litigation. This is Courtweek, after allyou know someone's gonna get sued."If you are dirty, if you are smuggling in contraband, drugs, cellphones, tobacco, then we're going to catch you. We might not get you today, maybe next week, next month, next year, but eventually, we're going to catch up with you, and we're gonna get you. That's what we do," Agent Fisher said.Reality TV in CourtMs. Battle sued A&E Television Networks, Inc., and Wild Eyes Productions, Inc., the producers of The Squad: Prison Police, in federal district court in Tennessee, alleging defamation and intentional infliction of emotional distress.A&E and Wild Eyes moved to dismiss the suit, arguing on the defamation claim that The Squad: Prison Police was not capable of defamatory meaning, noting that the program doesn't claim Ms. Battle committed a crime, but instead "accurately reports the results of an investigation."The court didn't buy it.Noting the camera angles, the ominous music, and the made-for-TV commentary of Agent Fisher, U.S. District Judge Kevin Sharp wrote:"Even though the Program indicates that a search of Plaintiff revealed no drugs, a jury could conclude from the overall way that the Program is presented that Plaintiff was a drug smuggler who just happened not to get caught on September 12, 2009. Such an impression is enforced by Agent Fisher's parting comments to the effect that while we might not get you today, we will get you sooner or later if you are smuggling drugs into a Tennessee prison."In rejecting the attempt by A&E and Wild Eye's to dismiss Battle v. A&E Television Networks, Inc., the court cited also the U.S. Supreme Court case of Milkovich v. Lorain Journal Co., and held that statements of opinion were not automatically protected from libel and slander claims on First Amendment grounds."After all, 'expressions of 'opinion' may often imply an assertion of objective fact," the court said.The lesson we take from this week's Case of the Week is that, before airing a show, A&E might want to make sure the subject is guilty of genital smuggling--or at least not put a cop on the air insinuating the innocent party just got lucky on that one occasion. After all, they could just put a bunch of people on a desert island, have a some obnoxious people become roommates, or have really untalented people sing.________________David Horrigan is an attorney, journalist, analyst at The 451 Group, editorial director at Courtweek.com, and former staff reporter and assistant editor at The National Law Journal. His articles have appeared also in The Washington Examiner, Law Technology News, The American Lawyer, The New York Law Journal, The San Francisco Examiner, Corporate Counsel, Texas Lawyer, Florida Lawyer, and Daily Business Review. E-Mail: dhorrigan@courtweek.comAugust 5, 2011The Law of Pig FumesHave you ever had a neighbor who cooked food they may have found tasty and delicious, but that emanated aromas reminiscent of aged Roquefort cheese and dirty baby diapers left in a garbage can in the hot sun? It would be most annoying, but would it be unlawful? Would the pungent aromas be trespassing onto your property?Believe it or not, the issue has been litigated, and, in this week's Case of the Week, we learn whether various airborne items--chemical particulate matter, sewage plant smells, and pig farm fumes--are trespassing when they waft onto your property. People may disagree, and that's okay. As we'll discover, the courts disagree as well.Organic AirOluf and Debra Johnson had decided to get back to nature. They converted their Minnesota conventional family farm into an organic farm, hoping to achieve an organic food certification that would allow them to charge more for their farm fresh products.Soon the Johnsons were ready to enjoy their new organic Eden. As they began their new all-natural existence, they stopped using pesticides, and Mr. Johnson posted signs around the property, letting everyone know that the Johnsons' new tree-hugging Utopia was a chemical-free zone.There was just one problem. The neighbors hadn't joined the eco-friendly bandwagon.The Johnsons may have embraced Mother Nature, but their next-door neighbor, the Paynesville Farmers Union Cooperative Oil Company, was still spraying away. Pesticides and herbicides drifted onto the Johnsons farm.Seeing the neighboring farm much like a chinchilla sanctuary might view a petrochemical plant as a neighbor, the Johnsons filed complaints in 1998, 2002, 2005, 2007, and 2008. The Minnesota Department of Agriculture cited Farmers Union four times for violating Minn.Stat. 18B.07, subd. 2b 2010, which made it illegal to apply a pesticide resulting in damage to adjacent property.Having had enough of chemicals wafting onto their pristine, virginal, chemical-free land, the Johnsons sued in Minnesota state court in January 2009, alleging, among other things, that Farmers Union committed trespass by allowing its chemical fumes to invade their property.A state trial court was unconvinced. It granted summary judgment to Farmers Union, on all claims, including the trespass claim, holding that trespass by particulate matter was not recognized in Minnesota.Leading the charge for Birkenstock-wearing lovers of fields and streams everywhere, the Johnsons appealed.The Law of Pig FumesIn rejecting the Johnsons' claim, the trial court relied on the Minnesota Court of Appeals' decision in Wendinger v. Forst Farms, Inc., 662 N.W.2d 546 Minn. App. 2003, review denied Minn. Aug. 5, 2003. The facts leading to the court battle in Wendinger are every homeowner's worst nightmare.The Wendingers and the Forsts had been neighbors for years. They had also farmed their lands for years, and the Wendingers built a new home on their land in 1984.In 1994, the Forsts entered into an agreement with Wakefield Pork, Inc., to construct and maintain a pig farm to house Wakefields' pigs. In a design sure to make anyone nauseous, liquid pig waste was stored in an outdoor concrete lagoon. The pig poo was then pumped and spread on the fields each fall.As the scents from farmyard feces filled the ambient air, the Wendingers began to complain. Then, they filed scores of complaints with state and local authorities. Finally, they sued.Among their allegations was a claim for trespass, arguing the pig fumes entering their property constituted trespass.A trial court dismissed the trespass claim, and the Wendingers appealed. The Minnesota Court of Appeals affirmed, holding that the Wendingers' claim was one for nuisance--not trespass--because the odors of which the Wendingers complained interfered with the use and enjoyment of their land, not with their exclusive possession of it.The trial court in Johnson used the Wendinger decision for the proposition that particulate matter traveling from one property to another could not constitute trespass. However, the appellate court in Johnson held the trial court read too much into the pig fume decision.Pesticides are not Pig FumesAlthough the appellate court in Wendinger used the phrase, "particulate matter," the appellate court in Johnson held all particulate matter is not alike."Nothing in our Wendinger analysis indicates that we intended the term particulate matter to define a unique category of physical substances that can never constitute a trespass," the court said. Basically, the court held pesticides are not pig fumes."Unlike the plaintiffs in Wendinger, the Johnsons do not claim trespass based on transient odors. Instead, they primarily complain that the liquid chemicals that the cooperative sprayed into the air from neighboring fields drifted, landed, and remained on the Johnsons' organic crops in detectable form, contaminating them." Judge Kevin Ross wrote for the court.Where the Wendinger court said there was no trespass because the pig fumes only affected enjoyment of the land, not possession of it, in ruling for the Johnsons, the appellate court in Johnson held that pesticides can affect both possession and enjoyment."The errant dispersion of pesticides, which contain chemicals designed to affect the land, can interfere with possession," the court said.So, the next time youre cooking your Aunt Betsys Garlic and Sauted Sardine Surprise, youre probably okay--even if it does ruin the ambiance of your neighbor's garden. But, if you spray Raid, and it ends up in your neighbors Cheerios, he may just lawyer-up.______________________________July 28, 2011The Law of Protecting Celine DionHow important is protecting Celine Dion?After all, she sells millions of records, and many middle-aged women adore her. However, there are millions more who would rather spend a weekend in an Iranian torture chamber than listen to Ms. Dion sing the theme from Titanic for the 4,761st time.The woman may need some protection.Well, in a development that may damage U.S.-Canadian relations and come as a shock to fans of syrupy, schmaltzy pop music, a federal appellate court has held that serving as Celine Dion's bodyguard does not constitute an original contribution of major significance in a field of endeavor sufficient to warrant the granting of a EB-1 visa.The BodyguardHad the court heard the case of Kevin Costner's character protecting Whitney Houston in The Bodyguard, the whole thing might have gone differently. Mr. Costner's character had made a major contribution in the field of celebrity personal protection by serving as a U.S. Secret Service agent. Such a high level of demonstrated skill and accomplishment might have brought him a visa.But what if, instead of being employed by the U.S. Department of the Treasury to be part of elite squad of livesavers, Mr. Costner had been employed to protect the top-selling female Canadian recording artist of all time by the pride of Charlemagne, Quebec herself?Would the United States grant a visa to the man who had protected Canada's fourth most famous export--next to Keanu Reeves in Bill and Ted's Excellent Adventure, maple syrup, and those deeply disturbing Sarah McLachlan commercials with the abused puppies and kittens?Nikolaos Skokos thought they should.Mr. Skokos, a security consultant for Celine Dion, applied to the United States Department of Homeland Security DHS for an EB-1 visa, and DHS rejected him. Apparently, DHS didnt think protecting the vocal cords that brought Beauty and the Beast to warm the hearts of little children was important enough.To see what an affront this might be to Ms. Dion's throngs of adoring fans, it helps to know a little bit about the legal process behind granting visas to enter the United States.Legal TitanicIn addition to establishing a lottery for certain visas and dropping homosexuality as a basis for exclusion from the United States, the Immigration Act of 1990 created the EB-1 visa to attract immigrants with exceptional talents and skills.The EB-1 visa has three types, one for multinational executives and managers, one for professors and researchers, and one for applicants of extraordinary ability. Two of the ways an applicant can demonstrate this extraordinary ability are showing he had made original contributions of major significance to his field of endeavor under 8 C.F.R. 204.5h3v or showing she was paid a high salary compared to others in her field under 8 C.F.R. 204.5h3ix.Not only did DHS feel that protecting Celine Dion did not meet this standard of excellence, the U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada agreed with DHS, holding for the government and rejecting an appeal filed by Mr. Skokos.In the legal equivalent of running the Titanic into an icebergwhile listening to Celine Dion sing about it as Leo and Kate flail in the frigid waters of the North Atlantic, Mr. Skokos appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in Skokos v. Department of Homeland Security, and fared no better.The appellate court held Mr. Skokos failed to establish that his work for Ms. Dion constituted an original contribution of major significance to the field of bodyguarding. In addition, the court held he failed to establish that he was paid more than most celebrity bodyguards.The court noted Mr. Skokos claimed he was far more than a bodyguard--he supervised guards, made security arrangements in the exotic destinations where Ms. Dion shot her mesmerizingly dramatic videos, and provided around-the-clock protection for Ms. Dion and her family. Nevertheless, the court was unmoved that protecting the valuable Canadian export was sufficiently significant to get a visa.The court noted the high standard for granting an EB-1 visa, citing the case of Kazarian v. USCIS, where a physicist who had published articles, written a textbook, and lectured extensively didnt even qualify for an EB-1 visa because his work--although satisfying the criterion for authorship of scholarly articles--did not establish that his work was of major significance in the field of physics.But, is writing scholarly articles and lecturing on physics at universities really as important as ensuring the gaffer and the best boy don't snag Celine Dion's Perrier from the buffet table?Of course, some people have managed to prove they are important and accomplished enough to get an EB-1 visa. Golfer Nick Price got one, but--unlike Mr. Skokos--he had won multiple championships, earned over a million dollars in prize money, and he had Jack Nicklaus, Lee Trevino, and Hale Irwin execute affidavits supporting his position.If only Mr. Skokos had managed to get a raise from Celine Dion and recommendations from Gladys Knight and the Pips.______________________________David Horrigan is an attorney, journalist, analyst at The 451 Group, editorial director at Courtweek.com, and former staff reporter and assistant editor at The National Law Journal. His articles have appeared also in The Washington Examiner, Law Technology News, The American Lawyer, The New York Law Journal, The San Francisco Examiner, Corporate Counsel, Texas Lawyer, Florida Lawyer, and Daily Business Review. E-Mail: dhorrigan@courtweek.comJuly 20, 2011American Idol's American LitigantMany contestants on the hit television show, American Idol, may believe Simon Cowell is a somewhat nasty fellow. He berates participants, calls them names, and generally makes people wonder if his momma taught him any manners. Nevertheless, most of these verbal salvo victims don't sue. But, one did, leaving us with the question: Does Simon Cowell's boorish behavior on American Idol violate Title VII of the Civil Rights of 1964?Effeminate Idol?In what some take as evidence of the decline of Western civilization, American Idol, the American spin-off of the British program, Pop Idol, has become one of the most successful shows on television. Contestants participate in singing competitions to win recording contracts, and the winners, including singers Kelly Clarkson and Carrie Underwood, have gone on to fame and fortune.Some of the contestants weren't as talented. One of those contestants was Ian Bernardo.Mr. Bernardo first appeared on American Idol in 2006 on the opening show of the season. These season-opening audition shows feature a few acts that will advance in the competition and a few acts that will come close. They also feature performers with no reasonable chance of advancement. These contestants--possessing little or no talent--apparently appear to provide comedic material by making fools of themselves. Apparently, Ian Bernardo was one of these comedic contestants for the 2006-2007 season.Not surprisingly, Mr. Bernardo was unsuccessful in his American Idol audition. However, Mr. Bernardo--who described himself as "having a non-conforming appearance based on gender stereotype," which a U.S. District Court interpreted to mean that "he appears to conform to a stereotype of an effeminate homosexual male"--did make subsequent appearances on the show for the 2006-2007 season finale and for Simon Cowell's final appearance on the show in May 2010.The Courthouse AuditionClaiming he was an employee of American Idol Productions Inc. On each of his appearances, Mr. Bernardo claimed also that he was subject to discrimination and harassment due to his sex on each of his appearances. He claimed American Idol Productions employees told him to "gay it up" and that producers conditioned his appearance on Mr. Cowell's farewell show on Mr. Bernardo's willingness to be "outrageous, flamboyant, and really gay."Claiming he was also subject to epithets such as "fag" and "homo," Mr. Bernardo filed a complaint with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC. He obtained a right to sue letter from the EEOC and sued American Idol Productions for violations of Title VII of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 and New York State law.American Idol Productions moved to dismiss the case, making several arguments. In addition to claiming Mr. Bernardo suffered no adverse employment action, the producers argued Mr. Bernardo had failed to make a case for hostile work environment under Title VII. Although the court conceded that--if true--the conduct at the Simon Cowell farewell show would constitute a hostile work environment, the court rejected Mr. Bernardo's legal argument.Noting Title VII is not a civility code and that discrimination on the basis of homosexuality is not prohibited under Title VII, the court held Mr. Bernardo had not established that gender stereotyping, which is prohibited by Title VII, had so permeated the workplace so as to create a hostile work environment.The court went on to dismiss all Mr. Bernardo's claims, noting, "He, like everyone else with a modicum of talent or less who auditions for American Idol, chose to appear on a program that was famous for its judges' insulting behavior. Benardo went on the air after being told what was expected of him, and he knew what to expect. Having volunteered to be insulted, he cannot now claim that he was sexually harassed."There was no word as of press time as to any possible Ian Bernardo appellate audition at the Second Circuit._____________________July 10, 2011Suing After Ferocious Puppy PanicPeople are injured in Americas stores, streets, and subways all the time, making personal injury law a big business. Its also one of the most contentious. Some cases may seem easy, but what if youre injured after being chased down a supermarket aisle by a charging dog owned by a store employee? Should the store be liable? Two Mississippi courts disagreed recently. Of course, it helps if you know something about the dog.Attack in the Artichoke AisleLenetra Outlaw decided to do some shopping at her local Penny Pinchers discount grocery store in West Point, Miss., one day in Aug. 2006. An otherwise pleasant shopping day took an unfortunate turn when Ms. Outlaw heard a sound that gripped her with fear and panic.She heard a dog bark.Ms. Outlaw then heard the terrifying sound of dog claws on Penny Pinchers' floors as the possibly ferocious beast came charging down the aisle. Ms. Outlaw, who said she was extremely afraid of dogs, decided it was time for drastic evasive maneuvers.She ran down the aisle, made a turn, and sought refuge from her brutal foe. Not finding a safe place in the aisle, she ran into a freezer. Thinking that wasnt safe enough--after all, she probably saw the movie, Cujo--Ms. Outlaw leaped on top of the freezer. In her Quixotic quest to escape Armageddon, Ms. Outlaw exacerbated a previously existing hip injury, and decided to sue Penny Pinchers and Cindy Scott, the store manager who owned the attack dog.A Mississippi state court jury found for Ms. Outlaw and awarded her 130,000, finding Penny Pinchers 70 percent at fault and Ms. Scott 30 percent to blame.At this point, you may be wondering, What's so interesting about this case?Remember at the beginning we told you it would help if you knew a little about the dog?Baby Weiner DogIt turns out this allegedly ferocious attack dog was nothing more than a four-month-old Dachshund puppy. That's right. A little weiner dog weighing four pounds.It seems Ms. Scott brought the adorable puppy named Sophie to work every day. The pleasant little puppy had never attacked anyone before. Ms. Scott kept Sophie behind the counter--not to protect customers, but so that no one would step on the little thing. Rather than a 150-pound Rottweiler with a spiked collar, Ms. Outlaw jumped on top of a freezer in mortal fear of a tiny weiner dog puppy.Given this fact pattern, Penny Pincher and Ms. Scott decided an appeal was in order. The issue facing the Mississippi Court of Appeals in Penny Pinchers v. Outlaw: Did the presence of the four-month-old Dachshund puppy create an unreasonably dangerous condition at Penny Pinchers that day?The court noted that the Mississippi Supreme Court had held that dogs are not dangerous per se. The Magnolias State's dog-loving supreme court held in Poy v. Grayson that to impose liability on a dog owner for personal injuries, a plaintiff must show the dog had a propensity for violence and that the owner knew it.The court in Penny Pinchers noted that the four-month-old, four-pound bundle of love, Sophie the Weiner Dog, had a clean record.Citing the Mississippi Supreme Courts 1969 decision in General Tire & Rubber Co. V. Darnell, the court went on to hold that a premises does not have to be completely safe from any hazardonly reasonable safeand that the plaintiffs own actions can be a factor."We acknowledge Outlaw's extreme fear of dogs. However, we cannot say that it was reasonable for Penny Pinchers to anticipate that anyone, even someone with a great fear of dogs, would have such a reaction to Sophie's presence in the store," Judge Thomas Griffis wrote for the court.Thus, we feel confident in saying, if you hurt yourself jumping on top of a freezer to escape a four-pound Dachshund puppy, don't bother suing anyone because its probably your own fault.__________________________June 29, 2011A Defamer's Guide to 'Dirtbag v. Dirtbag'What does it really take to slander or libel someone? The law of defamation can be complex, but a New York state court recently tried to sort out this weighty issue: What is a "dirtbag," and is the term defamatory?The issue arose after a man named William Schumacher penned comments that another man, John Acheson, was "the biggest dirtbag" he had ever met in his life. Acheson sued Schumacher before Westchester City Court in what, amusingly, could become a seminal case of black letter law. Apparently, no other U.S. Court has ever issued a reported decision on the issue of whether it is defamatory to call someone a "dirtbag."Citing a New York precedent, the court in Acheson v. Schumacher said libel or defamation was "a writing or broadcast that tends to expose the plaintiff to public hatred, contempt, ridicule, or disgrace." The court went on to cite the five proving elements of the tort, including the truth or falsity of the statement and whether the complaining party actually sustained damages.Without offering any citation, the court defined "dirtbag" as "an informal term" meaning "a dirty, grimy, sleazy, or disreputable person." The court went on to explain various possible meanings for Mr. Schumacher's allegedly defamatory statement. Did Schumacher mean that Acheson was the physically largest of the dirtbags he had known? Or perhaps just one of the most powerful? The court surmised also that Schumacher may have believed Acheson to be "just a tad worse" than the other dirtbags he had known.The point the court was making was that -- in any case -- these statements would all be opinions. Citing the case of Gilliam v. Richard M. Greenspan, P.C., the court held that statements of opinion are not defamatory. In Gilliam, one lawyer penned a nastygram, saying unflattering things about another lawyer. The court held it was opinion and threw out the case.But don't take these court decisions as a license to spew any insult you please. In Lund v. Chicago and Northwest Transp. Co., a Minnesota appellate court held that certain epithets -- in that case, the unfriendly word "s---head" -- used alone might be only "unactionable rhetorical hyperbole," but combined with other defamatory words or statements, such words could "take on actionable characteristics."It also matters where and when insults are hurtled. In National Recruiters Inc. V. Cashman, the Minnesota Supreme Court found it slander when a plaintiff was called "a no-good loser; a no-good son of a bitch" in the context of an employment reference.Other courts are more hostile toward such lawsuits. When ESPN posted a photo of daredevil Evel Knievel and his wife with the caption, "Evel Knievel proves you're never too old to be a pimp," the Knievels sued the network for defamation. They lost on the grounds that a reasonable person would not have taken the photo and caption to mean Evel was literally a pimp and Krystal his prostitute, despite their 29-year age difference and his rose-tinted glasses in the photo.And Florida courts have held that even such insults as "cockroach" and "mega-scumbag" do not constitute defamation, nor do references to a woman's "poor feminine hygiene." Despite being "crude and indecent," such comments were considered permissible as "satirical hyperbole."The bottom line is that you can freely call someone a dirtbag or a mega-scumbag, but be careful the next time you write a letter of recommendation. If you can't say something nice, at least don't say anything that will get you sued.___________________________David Horrigan is an attorney, journalist, analyst at The 451 Group, editorial director at Courtweek.com, and former staff reporter and assistant editor at The National Law Journal. His articles have appeared also in The Washington Examiner, Law Technology News, The American Lawyer, The New York Law Journal, The San Francisco Examiner, Corporate Counsel, Texas Lawyer, Florida Lawyer, and Daily Business Review. E-Mail: dhorrigan@courtweek.comRead more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/op-eds/2011/06/defamers-guide-dirtbag-v-dirtbag#ixzz1Qfc82pzXJune 12, 2011The Law of Ben & Jerry's and Natural BeansHave you ever wondered just what "all natural" means? There was once a professor who reminded his students that the bubonic plague was all natural. Various merchants--from sellers of cereal to purveyors of popcorn--claim their products are "all natural." Ben & Jerrys claimed its ice cream was all natural, but the Center for Science in the Public Interest didnt agree, so they got someone to sue Ben & Jerry's.So, we can attempt to discover once and for all just what all natural means, the tale of Chubby Hubby, Chunky Monkey, and Cherry Garcia defending their honor gets to be this week's Case of the Week.Activist ice creamIn the 1970s, childhood friends Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield took a correspondence course in ice cream making. Then they scraped up 12,000, opened an ice cream shop in an old Vermont gas station, and delivered dairy products in a station wagon. Ben & Jerry's Homemade Inc. Was born, and, as they say, the rest is history.Ben & Jerry's expanded quickly. Not only was the company known for its tasty ice cream with imaginative names, Ben & Jerry's became known as a leader in social and environmental activism. The growing company tried to promote world peace, and--from green dairy farms to recycled supplies--Ben & Jerry's made environmental stewardship a focal point of its operations. In addition, Ben & Jerry's donated 7.5 percent of the companys pre-tax profits to charity through the Ben & Jerry's Foundation. In 2000, Ben and Jerry sold the company to Unilever.Although they are now very rich dudes, Messrs. Cohen and Greenfield and their ice cream operation still conjure up images of granola, Birkenstocks, peace signs, and...well...things that are all natural. Of course, the labels of Ben & Jerry's ice cream read all natural, too. Some people didn't think it was natural enough.Dutch chocolateAlthough Amsterdam may be more famous for Rembrandt, the Rijksmuseum, and reefers, some people believe the Netherlands is also famous for Dutch chocolate. But, does anyone really know what Dutch chocolate is? Hint: it's a little more complicated than just being made near The Hague.Chocolate is produced when seeds from cocoa beans are fermented and dried and mixed with fat and powdered sugar. Cocoa powder can be made in two forms: unalkalized cocoa or Dutch-process alkalized cocoa. The unalkalized cocoa is made by merely pressing the beans. The process produces a light brown, very acidic powder.Dutch-process cocoa, on the other hand, is produced by cocoa nibs with a mild alkali solution to raise the pH and thus, lower the acidity. This process improves taste, color and solubility, but it also destroys many of the flavonols, which are believed to have health benefits. Ben & Jerry's used the Dutch alkanization process.All Natural?The Center for Science in the Public Interest CSPI doesn't think alkanized cocoa is all natural, so it contacted Unilever, demanding that the company remove the words all natural from both Ben & Jerry's and Breyers ice cream, another brand the company owns. Ben & Jerrys agreed to remove the phrase, all natural, from any products containing alkanized cocoa. Breyers did not.CSPI organized a class action with the ice cream-enjoying Skye Astiana as lead plaintiff of a band of ice cream eaters who hate the allegedly unnatural Dutch chocolate, and sued Ben & Jerry's in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California in Astiana v. Ben & Jerry's Homemade Inc. They alleged violation of both federal and California law in the labeling of the ice cream as all natural even though its cocoa contained potassium carbonate from the alkanization process.Specifically, the CSPI plaintiffs argued Ben & Jerry's committed fraud and engaged in false advertising in violation of California Business & Professions Code 17500. In addition, CPSI claimed Ben & Jerry's violated regulations promulgated by the federal Food and Drug Administration FDA.Ben & Jerry's filed a motion to dismiss the case, making numerous arguments, including debating the definition of all natural.The ice cream makers argued that "all natural" was a term of art under FDA and U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA regulations. Thus, Ben & Jerry's argued, for the CSPI plaintiffs to have been deceived by the all natural packaging, they would have had to have possessed an intimate familiarity with the FDA's natural policy as well as the USDA's regulations about what constitutes a synthetic process.Ben & Jerry's was taking the position that Ms. Astiana was merely an ice cream lover and not a federal regulatory expert.In addition, Ben & Jerry's argued a prospective class plaintiff would have had to taken that extensive regulatory knowledge, then actually have seen the all natural phrase on the package, and then made her own analysis that the ice cream was either not alkanized or that the alkali used in the Dutch cocoa process was not synthetic under the USDA regulations.After all that, under Ben & Jerry's argument, the potential plaintiff would have had to have relied on that regulatory analysis in deciding to enjoy that pint of Chubby Hubby. Ben & Jerry's argued that when the reasonable consumer bought her Chunky Monkey, she was not assuming all natural meant alkanized with sodium carbonate and not potassium carbonate.The court wasn't buying it--at least not for now.The court denied Ben & Jerry's motion to dismiss, holding that the dispute was too fact-dependent to be thrown out at this point."Moreover, the fundamental dispute--what is a natural product?--will likely present some factual disputes. The only FDA guidance appears to be a distinction between natural and synthetic in the policy, but that definition in the Federal Register is qualified as meaning something that would not normally be expected to be in food. Surely, that characterization raises multiple linguistic and philosophical questions, not to mention factual questions," U.S. District Judge Phyllis Hamilton wrote for the court.So, the battle between Ben & Jerry's and the enemies of Dutch chocolate will continue. What have we learned this week? Well, according to the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, there really isn't any definition of "all natural"...at least for the moment._______________________________June 5, 2011The Law of Bees and BudsWhat does it mean to operate a motor vehicle? It seems to be a simple question. Get a bunch of lawyers and judges involved, and it becomes anything but. Although alleged drunk driving cases are where this question is asked most often, this week's "Case of the Week" asks it in a different setting.What about when that motor vehicle is attacked by a swarm of bees?Unhappy HiveOne May day in 2009, Michael Corpus called animal control for the city of McAllen, Tex. It seems he was having a bit of a problem with a beehive.City of McAllen Animal Control Officer Roberto Mata responded to the call, and upon arrival at the scene, Mr. Corpus asked Officer Mata to accompany him to the hive with the swarming army of displeased bees.Possibly remembering what happened to the fools who tried to go into a hotel room with Mike Tyson's tiger, Officer Mata said something along the lines of: "I don't think so; Homey don't play that," and refused. Officer Mata insisted Mr. Corpus accompany him to the hive.So the two gentlemen entered Officer Mata's animal control vehicle, equipped with animal protection equipment. Officer Mata donned protective gear and approached the hive of danger, but he instructed Mr. Corpus to remain safely in the animal control vessel as the engine remained running.Things would have been just fine and dandy had Officer Mata not done something that may have been somewhat unwise.Insects Attack!Not unlike a Saturday Morning Super Hero decked out in protective gear as he makes Saturday mornings safe for kiddie sales of sugary cereal and overpriced toys, Officer Mata approached the hive in his protective animal control gear. Then, the swashbuckling hero of animal protection began spraying the bees.Guess what happened next?Shockingly, the bees attacked. But, no worries. Officer Mata was protected by his animal control gear. The problem was what Officer Mata did next.To escape the mighty swarm, Officer Mata ran to the truck, opened the door, and hopped in.The only problem, of course, was that, when he opened the door to the animal control truck, he let in a bunch of very angry bees--who proceeded to have a field day biting the [expletive deleted] out of the unprotected corpus of Mr. Corpus.Mr. Corpus was not amused.What do unamused people do in this column? They sue.The Law of Bees and CarsMr. Corpus sued the city of McAllen, alleging Officer Mata's negligent operation of his city-owned vehicle cased serious injuries to Mr. Corpus.Operating a motor vehicle? What about spraying the bee hive and opening the truck door so the bees could turn Mr. Corpus into a walking, talking pin cushion.Actually, Mr. Corpus had a smart lawyer.You see, government entities are usually only liable in civil suits if they waive what lawyers call sovereign immunity, the government's immunity from legal actions. Governments waive sovereign immunity for certain activities. Basically, you can sue the government only if the government says you can sue the government.One of the exceptions to sovereign immunity in Texas is for operation of motor vehicles. If Mr. Corpus' lawyer could show Officer Mata was operating the animal control truck, then he would have a case under the exception to sovereign immunity.So just what does it take to be operating a motor vehicle?If you asked a bunch of convicted drunk drivers, they would probably tell you Officer Mata was operating the animal control truck. That's because courts have held that, to be guilty of drunk driving, all one must do is sit in the drivers seat with the key in the ignition.Bud or Bees?For instance, in People v. Wood, Andrew Wood had a very unfortunate night at McDonald's. When he pulled up to the drive-up window in his van, he passed out--with his car running--and, giving new meaning to the phrase, "This Bud's for you," he had a can of Budweiser between his legs. At least it wasn't hot coffee. Oh yeah, he also had a cooler full of marijuana on the front seat.The legal story from the bad night at the Golden Arches wasn't so bad for Mr. Wood at first. Both a trial court and an intermediate state appellate court threw out the evidence against him, holding he was not operating his van at the time of the arrest and search.However, the Michigan Supreme Court reversed both courts and held Mr. Wood was operating the motor vehicle even though his van wasn't moving, and he had his foot on the brake. Noting that his van was running and in drive, the state's high court held he was operating the vehicle because he had put the vehicle in motion, was still in control of it, and the vehicle still posed a danger to the public. In doing so, the court reversed two previous Michigan cases that held one could not be sleeping and operating a motor vehicle at the same time.Actual physical control of the vehicle is the standard used by many jurisdictions, and in Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Nevada, that control can be maintained while sleeping.Putting the key in the ignition will get you in some states, including Vermont. In the Vermont Supreme Court case, State v. Helton, one hapless, inebriated fellow was convicted of DUI for merely putting his keys in the ignition to roll up his car windows--after he had gone to retrieve his vodka from the car.Note to self: appoint a designated sober window operator.So what about Officer Mata, was he in control of the vehicle and thus operating it for purposes of Mr. Corpus bee attack case?Departing from the case law of other states, both the trial court and the Texas Thirteenth Court of Appeals said "no.""The animal control truck was not in operation; it was parked. Corpus was injured when the bees entered the cab of the truck where he happened to be sitting. Although we do not condone Mata opening the truck door and exposing a passenger not wearing protective gear to agitated bees, we nonetheless cannot conclude that Corpus's injuries resulted from the operation or the use of the truck," Judge Nelda Rodriguez wrote for the court.So for this week, we've established that you are operating a vehicle in Michigan if you're asleep at the wheel in the McDonald's drive-through with weed on the seat and Budweiser between your legs, but that you're not operating a running vehicle in Texas with a swarm of bees on the seat and between your legs.Either way, its not a Happy Meal._____________________________David Horrigan is an attorney, journalist, analyst at The 451 Group, editorial director at Courtweek.com, and former staff reporter and assistant editor at The National Law Journal. His articles have appeared also in The Washington Examiner, Law Technology News, The American Lawyer, The New York Law Journal, The San Francisco Examiner, Corporate Counsel, Texas Lawyer, Florida Lawyer, and Daily Business Review. E-Mail: dhorrigan@courtweek.comRead more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/06/law-bees-and-buds#ixzz1OXOJfS6kMay 29, 2011The Law of Rambo and Air FreshenersOur column two weeks ago about the Fourth Amendment has generated some discussion about just what will negate yourFourth Amendment protections and allow the cops to haul your posterior end to jail. As a public service to help our readers remain free from bondage, we will, from time to time, present our Case of the Week: Fourth Amendment Follies edition.This weeks helpful hint: Don't use too much air freshener.Druggies from CharlotteRobert Little was traveling through the pleasant North Carolina hamlet of Thomasville early one August morning in 2008. It might not have been any big deal, but it was 4:03 in the morning, and Mr. Little was driving an old Buick with a malfunctioning headlight.Bonus reader helpful hint! If you're carrying contraband, don't drive through a small Southern town at 4:03 in the morning in an old Buick with a busted headlight. Bad things will happen. At least wait until 5:00 when the first batch of doughnuts comes off the conveyor belt at the local Krispy Kreme.Because Mr. Little didn't get the memo on suspicious vehicles lurking through the Bible Belt during the wee hours of the morning, he got to meet Officer Adam Kallfelz of the Thomasville Police Dept.Officer Kallfelz observed three things that made him decide it was time for back-up.First was Mr. Little's nervous and agitated demeanor. Second, Mr. Little said he was traveling from Charlotte. Finally, Mr. Little had approximately 10 tree air fresheners hanging from the rear-view mirror.Before we get to those pesky air fresheners, please allow us to defend the good people of Charlotte, North Carolina. You're a fine city with an economy built on good barbecue and Bank of America overdraft fees, and--unlike Office Kallfetz--we don't think you're a bunch of druggies. We don't think people should be stopped by the cops just because they're coming from Charlotte.But, back to those tree air fresheners.Rambo RaidA nervous dude driving from Charlotte with 10 air fresheners made Officer Kallfelz realize he needed a crime deterrent.It was time for Rambo.At 4:07 AM, Officer Kallfelz called Officer Christopher Leonard, asking him to bring his partner, Rambo.Not unlike Sylvester Stallone searching swamps for sadistic Viet Kong alumni, Rambo, a drug dog, went over that old Buick like a frat boy going through sofa cushions looking for that lost last joint.Rambo signaled for the presence of narcotics in the Buick's door, and Mr. Little was arrested for being a felon in possession of a firearm.Mr. Little moved to suppress the evidence, arguing the search was illegal, but a trial court denied the motion, holding that the stop and the search were lawful. Mr. Little appealed.Air Freshener JurisprudenceIn his appeal to the North Carolina Court of Appeals, the Tar Heel State's intermediate appellate court, Mr. Little argued in State v. Little that the search was improper because the cornucopia of air fresheners did not provide reasonable suspicion for extending the stop until Rambo arrived.Unfortunately for Mr. Little, North Carolina has a proud tradition of air freshener jurisprudence. They even go after Santa Claus if there's air freshener involved.In State v. Hernandez, the North Carolina Court of Appeals held a stop was proper when it was based, at least in part, on Christmas tree air fresheners.In Hernandez, Trooper Jonathan Whitley of the North Carolina Highway Patrol stopped a vehicle when driver Jose Hernandez removed his seatbelt while still operating his vehicle. Not unlike with Mr. Little's arrest, air fresheners would help lead to Mr. Hernandez's undoing."I noticed there were several of these Christmas trees, air fresheners in the vehicle. I noticed a strong odor coming from the vehicle," Trooper Whitley testified in defending his actions.Christmas tree air fresheners as a basis for detaining a motorists? Well, the court upheld the stop, and the court in Little followed the court in Hernandez."Facts giving rise to a reasonable suspicion include nervousness, sweating, failing to make eye contact, conflicting statements, and strong odor of air freshener," Judge Martha Geer wrote for the court in Little.And, if you think North Carolina is the only state fighting the war on air freshener, you would be wrong.In Commonwealth v. Watts, the Massachusetts Appeals Court held reasonable suspicion could be based, in part, on the presence of fabric softener drier sheets.The federal courts have joined this attack on pleasant aromas as well. In United States v. West, the Tenth Circuit proclaimed, "The Tenth Circuit has consistently held that the scent of air freshener is properly considered as a factor in the probable cause analysis, and in the Eleventh Circuit held in United States v. Wright that evidence of a drug conspiracy existed based partially on the fact that two persons entered the Winn-Dixie together to purchase carpet freshener and fabric softener; materials known to be used to mask the odor of cocaine.Many other federal circuits, including the Third, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth, have upheld convictions based, in part, on the presence of fabric softener, and in United States v. Edmonds, the Third Circuit upheld a trial court's refusal to believe a drug mule was a mere unsuspecting courier. Why? She brought along a box of Bounce fabric softener sheets.So, the lesson from this week's Case of the Week: with a Mountain Fresh scent filling the air, your dorm hall monitor in college didn't believe you then, and the cops don't believe you now. If you have contraband and notice Rambo sniffing your car, ditch the fabric softener...Bounce can get you busted.____________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/05/law-rambo-and-air-fresheners#ixzz1Nvzi9iNpMay 22, 2011The Law of Airport TipsHave you ever been sitting in a hotel room, staring at a room service bill, trying to determine whether the service charge added to your bill is the tip? And let's not even get started with deciphering the cryptic hieroglyphics known as the cable bill.But what if your employer hoisted a sign informing customers there would be a two-dollar charge for your services? Would that payment be your tip? Would posting that sign get somebody sued? Of course, it would. This is the Case of the Week.Air a la carteOur story begins in Sept. 2005, when American Airlines began charging a 2.00 fee for passengers to check a bag at curbside.Before this policy began, curbside check-in was free, but customers tipped the skycaps--usually a dollar per bag--for curbside service. Until American went and messed up things, most skycaps earned most of their earnings from tips.As the airline industry faced significant financial problems, airlines began charging for many services that had been free. This a la carte fee system affected everything from headphones to handbags.Want to watch the in-flight movie? No problem. That's free. Want to hear it? Two dollars for headphones, please. Want to eat? Pay up.Pay2Pee, the world's first aircraft pay toilet, can't be far away.At the moment, we can add curbside check-in to our non-complimentary airline a la carte menu.American--and its subcontractor actually employing the skycaps--made out like Tijuana bandits. The charge was designed to defray the cost of curbside service in a dark and dreary economy, but it actually became a profitable business venture for all...except the skycaps themselves.Many passengers thought American's 2.00 fee was the tip. Others felt 2.00 per bag was enough to pay for curbside service. The end result was the same: the skycaps lost a significant amount of their income as tips plummeted.Suing SkycapsTwo skycaps at Boston Logan International Airport sued American and the contractor, seeking class certification and arguing that American's curbside fee violated the Massachusetts statute governing tips, Mass. Gen. Laws, ch. 49, 152A 2008, constituted tortious interference with an advantageous relationship, unlawful conversion, and unjust enrichment under Massachusetts law, and that the skycaps were entitled to restitution under the legal theory of quantum meruit.The skycaps' employer was dismissed due to an arbitration agreement, and American removed the case from a Massachusetts commonwealth court to federal court.The skycaps argued Massachusetts law prohibited American from charging the curbside baggage fee because the fee qualified as a service charge under the commonwealth law because it was a fee that a consumer would reasonably expect to be given to the skycap.American countered that the skycaps suit was preempted by the federal Airline Deregulation Act of 1978. When a federal law preempts a state law on an issue, the federal statute has sole jurisdiction, and the state statute is preempted and nullified for purposes of that dispute.The District Court held for American on several grounds, but held for the skycaps on the preemption argument. Thus, the claims under the Massachusetts tips law and for tortious interference were tried to a jury.Big TippersIt turned out the jury was a bunch of big tippers. The jury found for the skycaps in April 2008 and awarded damages in the amount of 2.00 to each skycap for every bag handled between Sept. 2005 and the verdict.Thus, the jury awarded the nine prevailing plaintiff skycaps approximately 333,000 in damages plus interest and attorney fees. One plaintiff skycap from the St. Louis airport did not get to share in the bounty because--as a citizen of Missouri--he was not covered by the Massachusetts tip law.But, our story is not over. Cheap tippers can rejoice. American appealed, and the First U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals handed down a decision bound to make Parisian tourists do a happy dance.The First Circuit reversed the district court and ruled for American in DiFiore v. American Airlines, Inc., holding that the Massachusetts tip statute was, in fact, preempted by the federal Airline Deregulation Act.Although the appellate court conceded there was conflicting case law, it relied on three U.S. Supreme Court cases, Morales v. Trans World Airlines, Inc., American Airlines, Inc. V. Wolens, and Rowe v. New Hampshire Motor Transport Assn, in holding that the federal law preempted the Massachusetts tip statute vis--vis the skycaps tips.The court held the commonwealth's law was preempted when applied to Ameircan because it was related to a price, route, or service, noting that related to and service were statutorily broad terms.The First Circuit rejected the skycaps' argument that the tip law's connection to airline price, route, or service was so tenuous, remote, or peripheral as to not trigger preemption under Morales or Rowe."This, to borrow an apt airplane image, is walking into a rotating propeller: the advertising and service arrangements are just what Congress did not want states regulating, whether at high cost or at low. When the Supreme Court invoked the rubric "tenuous, remote, or peripheral", it used as examples limitations on gambling, prostitution, or smoking in public places--state regulation comparatively remote to the transportation function," the court said.So, next time you go to the airport, please remember that--because a federal court has ruled that curbside check-in is not like betting on ponies, retaining the services of a hooker, or smoking a joint at baggage claim--these guys aren't protected by the Massachusetts tip statute.Even if you pay an airline curbside baggage fee, please, folks, tip your skycap.________________________May 14, 2011The Fourth Amendment and the Law of Bongs and BaggiesThe Fourth Amendment provides some of our greatest protections from government. It keeps colonial constables out of our tea, J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI out of our mothers underwear drawers, and seizure-hungry sheriffs out of our Chevys.Yet, as with anything, the Fourth Amendment is not absolute. The Fourth Amendment prohibits only unreasonable searches. Thus, if police have probable cause for a search, its not unreasonable, and the Fourth Amendment won't stop it. In fact, the Fourth Amendment has a specific clause allowing searches with probable cause.A recent Massachusetts case gets to be our Case of the Week because it addresses the novel legal question: Does the presence of a bong and Baggies constitute probable cause for a search for marijuana?Speeding and SeizingWhen Shawn Smith decided to do some urban drag racing with friends, he probably should have left his bong at home. For readers who may be unfamiliar with the household appliance known as the bong, it is a water pipe--used by some to smoke marijuana.The speeding Mr. Smith was attempting to outduel a fellow motorist when police clocked him traveling 67 miles per hour in a 40 mile per hour zone.When police stopped the Smithmoblie, they noticed a bong and an open box of plastic sandwich bags in the car. The police testified that, based on their experience, a bong and Baggies usually meant one thing...and it usually happens a lot in Cheech and Chong movies. Yes, police thought they were dealing with that plague on humanity: marijuana.Having spotting the offending bong and Baggies, law enforcement swung into action.Police ordered Mr. Smith from the car, and frisked him. They asked him if there were any marijuana in the car, and he said there was not. However, Mr. Smith admitted he had some herbal enjoyment in his pocket. Police seized it, arrested Mr. Smith, and impounded his speedy car. Shockingly, they found more marijuana.However, in a development that will be significant legally later in our story, police did not detect any marijuana smoke or residue in the bong.Evidence Up in Smoke?Sure, police get to do an inventory when they seize a car. In this week's case, police were arresting Mr. Smith for his weed, so they got to go through his car and inventory everything. However, when police misbehave, there is a judicial remedy known as suppression of the evidence. For those who never have time to watch Law and Order, that means the evidence is thrown out because the cops got it illegally.In this case, because the police failed to give Mr. Smith his Miranda warnings before giving him the Spanish Inquisition, Mr. Smith moved to suppress evidence of the search.However, Massachusetts prosecutors argued the bong and Baggies sitting in the car in plain sight gave the police all the probable cause they needed to search the carMiranda or not. In essence, the Commonwealth argued, it was the probable cause supplied by the bong and Baggiesnot the Mirandaless utterances of Mr. Smith that gave police the pot.Both a trial court and the Massachusetts Appeals Court, the commonwealths intermediate appellate court, rejected prosecutors' arguments and threw out the evidence--and thus, the case. Citing Massachusetts case law, the court held that bongs and Baggies--and nothing more--do not give the police probably case for a search.Bong and Baggies LawThe Appeals Court distinguished Mr. Smith's case from two previous Massachusetts Appeals Court decisions where bongs did lead to probable cause for a search: Commonwealth v. Dolby from 2000, and Commonwealth v. Correia in 2006.It is true the facts in all three cases were somewhat similar: cops stop car, cops see bong, cops arrest driver. However, Smith differed from Dolby and Correia in one, key respect. Unlike in Dolby and Correia, in Smith, there was neither marijuana smoke nor residue present in the bong.The Appeals Court said that distinction was critical. In Dolby and Correia, the evidence was not suppressed, but it was because there was residue in the bong--not because police spotted an innocent bong just hanging out, minding its own business, with no nefarious residue or smoke.Baggies get the same constitutional protections.Citing its decision in Commonwealth v. Garcia, the court held, the observation of two lawful items--the bong and the box of sandwich bags--did not supply probably cause. The court articulated its rationale in Garcia:"The trooper's experience, coupled with his observation of an apparently empty baggie, is not enough to provide probable cause to conduct a warrantless search of the automobile. Benign objects such as spoons, mirrors, and straws are often used in the narcotic trade. To allow police officers, experienced in narcotics investigations, to conduct a warrantless search whenever they observe one of the above items, and nothing more, would permit random searches, which are condemned by the Fourth Amendment and the Declaration of Rights," the court said.So, Mr. Smith got off: the evidence was suppressed, and the charges were dropped. The moral of this week's Case of the Week: if you're going to go drag racing with your bong in the back seat, at least make sure it is clean._________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/05/law-bongs-and-baggies-fourth-amendment-searches-probable-cause-miranda-marijuana#ixzz1MKivXiVWMay 8, 2011The Law of Cow Bones and BungeesWhen you buy a product or service, how much information should the seller disclose to you? This week's Case of the Week examines that issue in a case involving breast implants, bungee cords, a surgeon's eyesight, and the jurisprudence of cow bone implants...not necessarily in that order.Manmade ChassisDenise Dalien decided she wanted to augment the chassis God gave her, so she consulted plastic surgeon Stanley Jackson of Puyallup, Wash. Dr. Jackson performed breast augmentation on Ms. Dalien in 2000, using saline implants.After a diet and exercise regimen caused her to lose weight, Ms. Dalien noticed some indentation and rippling on what was once her soft and supple upper left bosom.No problem. Dr. Jackson went in again, removed the saline implants, and replaced them with gel implants.Turns out there was a problem. Ms. Dalien was not happy with her new gel bosoms, so under the surgical theory of more is more, Dr. Jackson performed additional revision procedures on Ms. Dalien during 2005 and 2006.Blinding BungeeJust before all this happened, and--importantly for our story--unbeknownst to Ms. Dalien, Dr. Jackson was having issues with a bungee cord. Dr. Jackson went into mortal combat with the killer cord in July 1999.The bungee cord won.Dr. Jackson received surgery on his eye, and took over a month off from his practice. In July 2006, Dr. Jackson reported additional changes in his vision. He retired in October 2006 after unsuccessful surgery.Citing her allegedly unsuccessful surgeries, Ms. Dalien sued the good doctor twice. In one suit, Ms. Dalien argued negligent medical malpractice in the botched boob job.In her second civil action, Ms. Dalien sued under Washington States Consumer Protection Act CPA. Ms. Dalien argued, among other things, that Dr. Jackson violated the law by failing to disclose his eye injury.Cow Bone LawDr. Jackson argued that the nondisclosure of his eye condition did not occur in trade or commerce and that any alleged professional malpractice or negligence was exempt from the CPA.Ms. Dalien countered that the nondisclosure of the eye condition was, in fact, done in trade or commerce because Dr. Jackson solicited and retained patients by failing to disclose this condition.In siding with Dr. Jackson, Washington State's Court of Appeals cited the Evergreen State's jurisprudence on cow bone disclosure and the case of Michel v. Mosquera-Lacy.In Michel, Mystie Michel sought treatment from Lucy Mosquera-Lacy, a periodontist employed by Bright Now! Dental, Inc., and the doctor said Ms. Michel needed a bone graft.When completing her pre-procedure paperwork, Ms. Michel was given the choice of human bone, cow bone, or synthetic bone for her graft. Stating she could not fathom the thought of having animal parts in her body, Ms. Michel declined the opportunity to get authentic cow bone.Well, unfortunately for Ms. Michel, supplies were running low in the dental office that day.When Dr. Mosquera-Lacy ran out of human bone, she finished the job with cow bone.Although the dentist claimed she merely finished up with cow bone--and that cow constituted no more than 10 percent of the graft--Ms. Michel said she now had a McImplant with the doctor having implanted a cow bone in her mouth.Whatever damages or urges to graze on her front lawn Ms. Michel may have experienced, her case wasn't actionable under the Consumer Protection Act, the Washington Supreme Court held, because the use of cow bone was not an entrepreneurial activity in trade or commerce."Michael failed to show that Dr. Mosquera-Lacy's use of cow bone is entrepreneurial. It does not relate to billing or obtaining and retaining patients. It simply relates to Dr. Mosquera-Lacy's judgment and treatment of a patient. There is no evidence that cow bone was used to increase profits or the number of patients. When the supply of human bone ran out during the procedure, Dr. Mosquera-Lacy used her judgment and skills as a periodontist to finish the procedure. This is not actionable under the CPA," the court said.Bovine Bones and BungeesFollowing the Washington Supreme Court's holding in Michel, the Washington Court of Appeals held in Dalien v. Jackson that Dr. Jackson's nondisclosure of his eye condition was also an activity that fell outside the scope of Washington's Consumer Protection Act. Thus, the court declined to certify her class action, and it affirmed a trial court's dismissal of her case."As in Michel, Dalien has failed to show that Dr. Jackson's nondisclosure of his eye injury is entrepreneurial. Dr. Jackson's nondisclosure does not relate to Dr. Jackson's billing or obtaining and retaining patients. Dalien has presented no evidence that Dr. Jackson represented that he had better vision than his competitors or somehow relied on his vision to promote his business," Judge Russell Hartman wrote for the court.However, the court didn't say Ms. Dalien didn't have a case--just that she didnt have a case under the CPA. Referencing her other suit, the court said, "To the extent that Dr. Jackson's eye injury may have affected his ability to examine, diagnose, treat, or care for his patients, that question is actionable under the negligence theory, which Dalien is pursuing in her original lawsuit."The lesson of this week's Case of the Week? If you want to sue under Washington's Consumer Protection Act, make sure they advertise their excellent vision allows them to see your head before they implant a cow bone in it.____________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/05/law-cow-bones-and-bungees#ixzz1Ll8lzZ00May 1, 2011The Law of Bait Car JournalismDavid Broder, Edward R. Murrow, William F. Buckley Jr., Walter Cronkite, and now Bait Car?As the old Sesame Street song said, it would appear that one of these things just doesn't belong here. Well, that's not what the producers of the television show, Bait Car, say. They argue their show is real journalism, and--in an attempt to avoid producing evidence in a California court proceeding--they say their photographers are journalists. In recognition of this creative legal argument, their case gets to be our Case of the Week.What is a Journalist?The proliferation of new media sources has created a novel question: Just what is a journalist? Must one possess government-issued press credentials, sending shivers down the spines of First Amendment advocates? How about a requirement that you earn your living from journalism? Perhaps there should be a requirement that at least your Aunt Betsy actually read what you write?This question has taken on real legal significance as the U.S. Congress and many states have tried to implement so-called reporters' shield laws. These laws attempt to protect reporters and their confidential sources by shielding confidential information from disclosure to courts and third parties.Although there has been substantial progress, a federal shield law has not yet passed. However, 40 states and the District of Columbia have shield laws, with many states enacting them after what some argued were Bush administration abuses, prosecutorial attacks on the press, and the prosecution of New York Times reporter Judith Miller.Some Republican lawmakers cited national security concerns with reporters' shield legislation, and others had a more fundamental issue: How do you go about deciding which writers get to be journalists in a New Media world vs. Old Media world?Many hipsters sipping lattes at Starbucks like to bash so-called Old Media. As they iPad away their afternoons, bowing before the altar of New Media, they mock institutions such as The Wall Street Journal as the old media of their grandparents, and--bless their little black turtlenecks and Birkenstocks--they weren't fooled by Rupert Murdoch's purchase of Myspace. Silly, Rupert, New Media is for hip kids.But, the beautiful world of blogging Brown alumni opining on global warming and Maya Angelous contributions to literature while their conservative brethren blog on banks and hedge funds may be in for a shock to its modern sensibilities. There may be unwanted guests at this post-modern, online clambake, and it may be a sign of things to come.Bait Car as New MediaThe folks at truTV, that network of cop shows that used to be Court TV, have come up with a new show called, Bait Car. In Bait Car, the producers work with local police to place an unlocked car with keys in the ignition out on the street. Its the bait for would-be car thieves. Get it, bait, car?Many unsuspecting citizens, including Joseph Bullard, took the bait.Or did he?In the case of People v. Bullard in the Superior Court of California, San Francisco County, Mr. Bullard argued that he was merely being a good citizen, moving the Bait Car out of its illegal parking spot.He also argued selective prosecution. Mr. Bullard, a gentleman who enjoys cross-dressing, argued it was no coincidence that the unholy trinity of producers, police, and prosecutors arranged for the Bait Car to be placed outside Divas, a well-known, somewhat risque San Francisco transgendered club. Police countered that they just picked an area known for car theft.To prove Mr. Bullard's Good Samaritan claim, his legal counsel wanted to see the tapes of the filming from KKI Productions, the producers of the San Francisco episodes of Bait Car. Not unlike Judge John Sirica sending an order to the Nixon White House, Judge Gerardo Sandoval ordered KKI to turn over the tapes.Not so fast, said KKI. Arguing that Bait Car was journalism and that the intrepid Bait Car photographers were, in fact, journalists and so under California's reporters shield law, KKI refused.Judge Sandoval wasn't buying it. He rejected KKI's reporters shield argument, and demanded the tapes.Funny thing. You may have laughed at Mr. Bullard's "I was only helping by moving the car" argument, but prosecutors dropped the charges against Mr. Bullard.Future of Journalism?Bait Car's producers were working with prosecutors, turning over their tapes to the district attorney's office, and that cooperation with cops was fatal to their legal argument, according to Judge Sandoval and legal journalism experts."You can't have it both ways. You can't cooperate with one side and not the other," said Lucy Dalglish, Executive Director of the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press."You can make a very strong argument that the cooperation with one side is a waiver of the privilege," Ms. Dalglish added.People v. Bullard does not decide the law on the contentious issue of who gets to be a reporter in the eyes of the law--although it does put Californians on notice that, if youre in cahoots with the cops, you probably don't get to be one, at least for reporters shield purposes.The case also illustrates that the cozy little blogging world at Starbucks and beyond is also in the midst of a culture shift. The latter day hipsters may have make room on the Starbucks sofa for Bait Car journalists, Dog the Bounty Hunter, Big Brian the Fortune Seller, and the zany, fun-loving staffs of Ma's Roadhouse, Lizard Lick Towing, and Hardcore Pawn.Yes, the Fourth Estate is becoming a very big tent in every respect imaginable...and in some not so imaginable.________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/04/law-bait-car-journalism#ixzz1LCFs9nEyApril 24, 2011The Law of Gwen Stefani AvatarsAt the time of this week's legal tale, Gwen Stefani was a big, giant rock star, and Activision Publishing's Band Hero videogame series was extremely popular. Combine the two - the theory went - and you would have what one of those MBA-types might call, synergy.Activision and Ms. Stefani thought so...until they ended up in court.This week's Case of the Week illustrates the legal principle of the right of publicity. It also puts us on notice with the following legal poetry: Make Gwen Stefani a dude, and you're gonna get sued.California Dreamin'In the 1990s, Gwen Stefani and Activision were both living the Southern California dream. Ms. Stefani and her Orange County band, No Doubt, achieved critical and commercial success, including Grammy nominations and huge recording contracts, while hitting the top of the charts with their 1995 single, Don't Speak.Meanwhile, the friendly folks at Activision were building a videogame empire in Santa Monica with hit games such as MechWarrior 2: 31st Century Combat and Civilization: Call to Power. They also made some money off a game series based on the adventures of skateboarder Tony Hawk.Entering the 21st Century, one of Activision's biggest games was its Guitar Hero series, which basically allows players to engage in computer-assisted air guitar. Band Hero was a similar, spin-off production.One of Band Hero's features allowed players to create avatars based on real life rockers.Thinking it would be just nifty to have No Doubt avatars in the game - or at least thinking that it would be just nifty to have some of Activision's cash -- No Doubt executed its Professional Services and Character Licensing Agreement with Activision, allowing the gamemaker to create avatars -- or computerized characters -- based on the band, and use them in Band Hero.Gwen is not a dudeMuch to their horror, the members of No Doubt learned about a special feature of Band Hero shortly before the product's launch -- it was a special feature No Doubt may have worried pubescent punksters might manipulate.In their Agreement, Activision and No Doubt agreed Activision would license only a limited number of No Doubt songs for use in the game. However, that provision failed to consider another potential use of Band Hero.When players reached a certain level of the game, Band Hero allowed them to unlock their avatars, changing their song selection and personal characteristics.For instance, Activision licensed only a few No Doubt songs, but if Little Johnny were proficient enough in Band Hero to get his avatar -- say, perhaps, a lasciviously alluring Ms. Stefani -- to reach Level Nine of Band Hero, he could unlock her and free her from the bondage of her current condition, in every way, including gender.No Doubt was most displeased to discover that, once your Gwen Stafani avatar were unlocked, not only could Avatar Gwen be singing Janet Jackson, she could also be singing Tito Jackson.You see, once unlocked, an avatar's voice could be changed from male to female.Not surprisingly, Ms. Stefani and her bandmates were not excited about the prospect of having their voices replaced with the manly sounds of Boy George.Ska vs. SuitsCould Activision really use the twisted avatars without No Doubt's permission?No Doubt didn't think so, and the band sued Activision in California state court. In No Doubt v. Activision Publg, Inc., the band sued for injunctive relief and damages, arguing Activision had engaged in the unauthorized exploitation of No Doubt's name and likeness.The band sued on several grounds, including Activision's alleged violation of No Doubt's right of publicity.The right of publicity gives an individual control over the commercial use of her name or likeness. About half the states have a statutory right of publicity and others protect the right of publicity as part of their right of privacy laws.There has been a movement to extend the right of publicity beyond death. Not surprisingly, this movement is led by the heirs of some very famous dead people, including the heirs of Marilyn Monroe.California is one of those states with a codified right to publicity, contained in section 3344 of the California Civil Code.However, Activision countered that No Doubt's right of publicity claim was barred as a matter of law because Activision's actions on the avatars constituted constitutionally protected activity under the First Amendment.A Los Angeles Superior Court judge denied Activision's motion to strike No Doubt's complaint, and Activision appealed to California's Second District Court of Appeal.Citing Comedy III Prods., Inc. V. Gary Saderup, Inc., the appellate court applied the transformative use test, a method to determine whether a use of a likeness was transformed from something more than a mere impersonation.The appellate court sided with No Doubt and the trial court. The court ruled that a transgendered avatar did not qualify as a transformative use. Thus, the appellate court held, the First Amendment did not excuse Activision's alleged violation of its right to publicity."Nothing in the creative elements of the Band Hero elevates the depictions of No Doubt to something more than conventional, more or less fungible, images of its members that No Doubt should have the right to control and exploit. Thus, the trial court did not err in denying Activision's motion to strike the right of publicity claim based on Activision's assertion of a First Amendment defense," Judge Thomas Willhite Jr., wrote for the court,The court compared and contrasted Ms. Stefani's avatar with the image in another case involving a Sega videogame and the former lead singer of Dee-Light, Kirby v. Sega of Am., in holding Avatar Stefani was not a transformative use. The First Amendment may be powerful, but -- at least in this Case of the Week -- it provides no constitutional protection for a Gwen Stefani avatar in a Boy George voice singing, Do You Really Want to Hurt Me?_________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/04/law-gwen-stefani-avatars-band-hero-No-Doubt-v-Activision-Publ-Inc#ixzz1KUS9gVwHApril 17, 2011The Law of Urinal TrademarksTrademarks and the legal disputes involving them may be the most entertaining area of intellectual property law, and a recent Pennsylvania federal court case illustrates just how entertaining trademark fights can be. You might think this fight over the name, "Pint," was a beer dispute. You would be wrong.This week's Case of the Week examines what happens when two urinal manufactures get into a legal dispute over the names of their products.Pint of Yellow LiquidThe urinal and its bathroom cousin, the toilet, use a lot of water. As people have become more concerned about the environment, manufactures have joined the party, developing so-called green products, and urinal makers are no exception. After all, no self-respecting urinal manufacturer wants to be known as a truck stop eco-terrorist.Among the leaders in the urinal market are Zurn Industries and Sloan Valve Co. Both Zurn and Sloan wanted to help save the planet by making eco-friendly urinals.Zurn developed a urinal Mother Nature would love and named it, The Pint. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office awarded Zurn the United States Trademark Registration No. 3,389,517 for The Pint, part of Zurn's EcoVantage line of environmentally friendly "fractional flush" urinals. They're called fractional flush because they use a fraction of the water regular urinals use when you flush them.Not to be outdone, the nature-loving folks at Sloan came out with their own environmentally sound urinal, the Sloan 1 Pint Urinal System.Not unlike a fraternity pledge spotting someone swiping his pint of Guinness from the bar, lawyers for Zurn swung into action.Urinating ContestAfter noticing a Sloan press release for the Sloan 1 Pint Urinal System on the website, greenlodgingnews.com, Zurn's lawyers sent Sloan a cease and desist letter, arguing Sloan's name infringed on Zurn's registered trademark for The Pint. Zurn demanded that Sloan stop marketing its allegedly infringing urinal with "pint" in its name.In an apparent attempt to maintain peace and harmony in the urinal world, Sloan changed the name of its urinal from the "Sloan 1 Pint Urinal System" to the "Sloan Pint Urinal System."It was a nice try, but Zurn was unsatisfied. Simply deleting the numeral, "1," from the name wasnt enough. Not unlike Carrie Nation on a bar raid, Zurn wanted the Pint the h*ll out of there.Sloan refused, and Zurn's trademark lawyers did what it takes to become the Case of the Week. They sued.In its case, Zurco, Inc. V. Sloan Valve Co., filed in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, Zurn argued Sloan's use of its name violated the federal Trademark Act of 1946, known commonly as the Lanham Act. Specifically, Zurn argued that Sloan's name caused a likelihood of confusion among potential customers.Sloan countered that -- despite Zurn's federal trademark registration --The Pint was not a legally protectable trademark for a urinal because the mark was generic, a trademark legal term meaning the name is a common, general term with no secondary meaning.Sloan argued that pint was merely an identification of a type of urinal -- one that uses one pint of water when flushed. Thus, Sloan argued, urinal purchasers would associate the term, pint, with the flush volume of the urinal, not the maker of the urinal, Zurn.In attempting to decide the dispute between the fighting flushers, the federal court applied the so-called primary significance test, used in many cases, including A.J. Canfield Co. V. Honickman. Under the primary significance test, the court determines whether the primary significance of a term in the minds of the consuming public is the product or the producer.The court illustrated the difference by citing E.T. Browne Drug Co. V. Cococare Products, Inc., where the court made the distinction that cola was generic because it described a product, but Pepsi-Cola is not generic because it describes the producer.Zurn disputed the generic label by noting that, in the toilet and urinal industry, flush volumes are described -- not in pints -- but with the terms, gallons per flush GPF and liters per flush LPF. In fact, Zurn claimed the use of gallon and liter by those other wasteful water-hogs in the toilet and urinal industry was precisely why it chose the unique term, pint.However, Sloan countered that pint had become an industry standard, noting that American Standard has used pint and 1 point since 2008, Mansfield Plumbing Products has used 1-pint for its Brevity line of urinals, and Caroma USA had used one pint for its Cube Ultra line of urinals for two years.Unfortunately for Sloan, the court noted that none of those urinal craftsmen had used the term before Zurn introduced the Pint in 2007. In addition, Zurn argued it had been diligent in sending cease and desist letters to the allegedly infringing urinal producers, a requirement for protection under trademark law.To Be ContinuedIn denying motions for summary judgment on most issues, the court held that there were genuine issues of material fact as to whether The Pint was generic. As a result, the case will move forward, and more evidence about urinals and what people call them can enter the hallowed halls of American jurisprudence.________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/04/law-urinal-trademarks#ixzz1K9cmh600April 10, 2011The Law of Chicken HeadsEmotional injuries and related damages may be one of the most contentious areas of the law, especially when -- as in thisweek's Case of the Week -- that emotional injury is based on an employer's forcing a worker to wear a chicken head mask in order to get medical benefits. Yes, this week, we go to Massachusetts to bring you the law of chicken head damages.Poultry ProblemsKaren Cappello worked full-time for Cricket Productions, where she processed orders. Because she was a full-time employee, she asked her boss, Victor Grillo Jr., for medical coverage.Mr. Grillo was very happy to give Ms. Cappello the medical coverage she desired, but it seems there was a catch.Mr. Grillo said Ms. Cappello could have the medical insurance only if she wore a chicken head mask."No head, no payment," Mr. Grillo wrote in an e-mail.We're not making this up. We couldn't come up with stuff this good.Even with major medical and hospitalization coverage for her young daughter on the line, Ms. Cappello declined to don the chicken head, which was part of a complete chicken costume kept in the office. You see, according to court papers, the employees at Cricket Productions considered themselves a fun-loving group that often socialized after hours.Apparently, none of the production place's playful pranksters thought there was anything odd about making a session in the chicken head a prerequisite to health coverage.Ms. Cappello did.Saying she became too depressed to work as a result of the alleged harassment, Ms. Cappello sought medical attention and claimed she was unable to work.Of course, this is the Case of the Week, so you know what happens next.Colonel Sanders or Jack Daniels?Ms. Cappello decided to file a claim for her alleged injuries, and an administrative legal action ensued. Cricket carried no workers compensation coverage, but an administrative law judge held that, because Cricket was doing the business of DTR Advertising, Inc., DTR's insurer, The Hartford Insurance Co., was liable for Ms. Cappello's claim.Based on the opinion of her psychiatrist, Mark Cutler, Ms. Cappello argued Mr. Grillo's alleged chicken head harassment was the predominant contributing cause of her adjustment disorder and major depressive disorder. The administrative law judge agreed and held for Ms. Cappello, but The Hartford appealed, arguing the chicken head incident was not the predominant contributing cause of Ms. Cappello's alleged injuries.Hartford argued there could be other potential causes for the alleged injuries, and -- on appeal to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Industrial Accidents in the case of Cappello v. DTR Advertising, Inc. -- the judges noted that Ms. Cappello had received previous psychiatric treatment for issues related to a divorce and an alcohol-dependent husband.Ms. Cappello rejected the notion that marital warfare or her husband's close, personal relationship with Jack Daniels and Johnnie Walker caused her injuries.It was all about that chicken head.Foul fowl?Because of her preoccupation with the perceived harassment at work and her disbelief that she was being asked to do what her employer asked her to do, which she perceived as very humiliating, she has been unable to return to any work for which she is reasonably trained by virtue of her education and job experience, Ms. Cappello's psychiatrist told the administrative law judges.In a legal ruling sure to shock the San Diego Chicken, Mardi Gras revelers, and others who actually enjoy wearing chicken head masks, the judges sided with Ms. Cappello.Rejecting the insurer's argument that there were other causes for Ms. Cappellos psychiatric issues, the judges ruled Ms. Cappello had shown those problems were not the cause of her present injuries. Although the judges conceded she had past psychiatric problems, they noted she had not experienced her present symptoms until the chicken head incident.The judges held that Dr. Cutler's medical opinion satisfied the Massachusetts standard for predominant contributing cause of injuries established in the Massachusetts Appeals Court decision, May's Case, and the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court decision, Robinson's Case.In addition, citing Bouras v. Salem Five Cents Savings Bank, the judges held that, because Dr. Cutler's opinion satisfied the predominant contributing cause standard, the chicken head incident was the only legal cause of her injuries."Because the doctor's opinion effectively ruled out the previous stressors in the employee's life as causes of her emotional disability, his opinion can be understood to implicate the events at Cricket Productions as the only cause," the judges wrote.The Massachusetts case of the chicken head was remanded to the lower judge on additional claims Ms. Cappello made, but she was victorious on this day...so was her lawyer.For their efforts on behalf of their client and for furthering the jurisprudence of chicken heads in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the judges awarded Ms. Cappello's lawyer 1,488.30 in legal fees.__________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/04/law-chicken-heads#ixzz1J7TcDYNfApril 1, 2011The Law of April Fools' JokesFor our April Fools' Day edition of the Case of the Week, we visit the California Court of Appeal, which supplies us with a case touching on constitutional law, contracts, defamation, and, of course, the law of April Fools' jokes. Not surprisingly, our case involves Sasha Baron Cohen, known popularly as Borat and Ali G.A 2004 episode of Mr. Cohen's British television show got his network into a bit of trouble, and it had to pay the alleged target of his jokes 90,000. When the infuriated supposed subject came back for more, it ended up in American court, raising the question: could a reasonable viewer take the show seriously, resulting in a judgment for defamation?The Art of AmendingOn a 1987 youth trip to Israel, Sasha Baron Cohen began a friendship with a woman known only as "Jane Doe" in court proceedings. The friends lost touch over the years, but Ms. Doe followed Mr. Cohen's increasingly successful career as a comedian, and, apparently, Mr. Cohen never forgot Ms. Doe's real name.On the Aug. 15, 2004, episode of Mr. Cohen's television show, Da Ali G Show, Mr. Cohen interviewed the American author, Gore Vidal. Among the topics of conversation were the United States Constitution and the practice of amending it.Mr. Cohen asked Mr. Vidal if it were not sometimes better to get rid of something rather than amending it. As an example, Mr. Cohen referred to Ms. Doe. Using her real name and referring to her with a term also used to describe a female dog, he said Ms. Doe was always trying to amend herself by such means as highlighting her hair, adorning herself with tattoos, and shaving her private regions.Mr. Cohen said Ms. Doe's amending was for naught because he dumped her after he impregnated her. Ms. Doe denied her relationship with Mr. Cohen was ever romantic or sexual in nature.Given what Mr. Cohen claimed were Ms. Doe's unsuccessful attempts at amending herself, he reasoned that amending anything -- including the Constitution of the United States -- was ill-advised.With no apologies to Vidal Sassoon, the people of the Eastern Hemisphere, or George Washington, in his role as Ali G, Mr. Cohen went on to suggest that Mr. Vidal was an internationally famous hairstylist, that euthanasia was a means of exterminating the elderly in Asia, and that Denzel Washington resided at Mount Vernon.Ms. Doe was not amused.Costly ComedyDa Ali G Show was produced by Britain's Channel Four Television Corp. And distributed in the United States by HBO. After complaints from Ms. Doe, HBO settled with her in 2004 for 40,000. As part of the settlement, HBO agreed to edit the episode so Ms. Doe's name would be removed in any future broadcasts.Well, Ms. Doe's fame -- or infamy, depending on ones perspective -- continued. When HBO presented the episode on Comcast, it left Ms. Doe's name in the airing of the show, resulting in another settlement with Ms. Doe in 2006 with the same terms as the 2004 settlement, except this time Ms. Doe received an additional 50,000 payday.Nevertheless, viewers of Da Ali G Show had not heard the last of Ms. Doe.When a friend of Ms. Doe's saw the unedited version -- that would be the one with Ms. Doe's name -- on YouTube after the second settlement, he contacted her, and they discovered a viewer in Estonia had uploaded the clip from Finnish television, which had received the unedited version from Channel Four.No more settlements. Ms. Doe decided to take her battle to court.The Law of April Fools'Ms. Doe sued HBO and Mr. Cohen in California state court, and later added Channel Four as a defendant. She sued on multiple grounds, including libel, slander, breach of contract, invasion of privacy, and negligent infliction of emotional distress.Channel Four moved for summary judgment -- a legal ruling where one side wins the case before it even gets to trial -- arguing, among other things, that no reasonable person could have understood Mr. Cohen's statements as factual.The trial court sided with Channel Four."No reasonable person could consider the statements made by Ali G on the program to be factual. To the contrary, it is obvious that the Ali G character is absurd and all his statements are gibberish and intended as comedy. The actor, Sacha Baron Cohen, never strays from the Ali G character, who is dressed in a ridiculous outfit and speaks in an exaggerated manner of a rap artist. Ali G's statements are similarly absurd," the trial court said.Ms. Doe appealed, but she fared no better with the Californi's Second District Court of Appeal in Doe v. Channel Four Television Corp. Citing cases involving comedian Robin Williams and an April Fools' joke, the appellate court agreed that no reasonable person could have taken Mr. Cohen seriously. Thus, the court held, there was no defamation.In the case involving Robin Williams, Polygram Records, Inc. V. Superior Court, California's Third District Court of Appeal held there was no defamation when Mr. Williams did a skit where a wine distributor complained that there was white wine and red wine, but no black wine.The court noted Mr. Williams said the so-called black wine was tough enough to be advertised by Mean Joe Green, was black in color, tasted like urine, and went with anything it damn well pleased. The court added that no reasonable person could have taken Mr. Williams seriously and that to hold the skit defamatory would run afoul of the First Amendment.Likewise, in San Francisco Bay Guardian, Inc. V. Superior Court, California's First District Court of Appeal held there was no defamation when, in its April Fools' Day edition, the San Francisco Bay Guardian newspaper ran a fictitious letter from a landlord stating that he found his tenants who had undergone electroshock therapy where much more cooperative because no reasonable person would take the fake letter seriously.Today's legal lesson is thateven if it involves an electroshocked tenant with shaved privates drinking black wineits tough to win a defamation action against a comedian.________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/03/law-april-fools-jokes#ixzz1ISyc57fbMarch 27, 2011The Law of Cantaloupes and Inflatable SharksHave you ever been really impressed by marketing displays constructed at your local store, where industrious employees create displays of commerce only slightly less impressive than the Taj Mahal?Well, Joyce Henderson may have felt that way before she broke her hip falling before a marketing temple of stacked cantaloupes at her local supermarket.Adding insult to injury, Ms. Henderson lost again in this week's Case of the Week as the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma grappled with the weighty issue of whether cantaloupes are the legal equivalent of inflatable sharks for premises liability purposes.Cantaloupes of DoomThe story of Henderson v. Harps Food Stores, Inc., began on a fine June day in 2009 when Ms. Henderson visited the Harps Food Store in Fort Gibson, Okla. Harps employees had created a display of cantaloupes, which was actually a giant octagon of wholesome, fruity goodness.Harps displayed the cantaloupes in large cardboard containers resting on a wooden pallet. The cardboard containers were roughly square in shape with the corners slightly recessed, forming the muskmelon octagon.Ms. Henderson admitted spotting the pallet beneath the pile, and even considered the pesky pallets potential as a pitfall. Nevertheless, she plowed ahead.While examining one of the succulently sweet cantaloupes, Ms. Henderson's foot caught on the pallet, and she hurt her hip hitting Harps' hard floor.The stage was now set for Ms. Henderson and Harps to debate the jurisprudence of cantaloupes vis-a-vis inflatable sharks.Ms. Henderson sued Harps in Oklahoma state court in a tort action, alleging Harps was negligent in its dangerous display of the killer cantaloupes and in its negligent failure to warn customers of its alleged fruity booby trap.Harps removed the case to federal court and filed a motion for summary judgment, arguing it was not liable because the exposed cantaloupe pallet was an open and obvious condition.Generally, under Oklahoma premises liability law, which applied even though the case was in federal court, businesses are not liable for damages sustained from these so-called open and obvious conditions. However, there is a possible exception in the law for conditions or defects visible but unseen by a plaintiff.Ms. Henderson and Harps battled over the case law. For instance, both parties cited the Oklahoma Supreme Court case of Phelps v. Hotel Mgmt., Inc., where an unsuspecting patron hit her head on a decorative glass bowl that protruded into the seating area of a hotel lobby.Sure, the thing was open and obvious in the literal sense, but the court in Phelps held a reasonably prudent person might not have noticed the risk of injury from the protrusion of funky art into the seating area and -- for the condition to be open and obvious as a matter of law -- the potential for injury must also be noticeable.The court in Henderson rejected Ms. Henderson's reliance on Phelps and another court decision, Zagal v. Truckstops Corp. Of Am., a case where things went horribly awry in the aisle of a truck stop. The court held those cases did not apply to Ms. Henderson's case of the killer cantaloupes because -- not only did Ms. Henderson see the open and obvious collection of cantaloupes -- she knew it posed possible danger.However, all hope was not lost for Ms. Henderson. It was time for her lawyers to launch a legal shark attack.But could an inflatable shark really save Ms. Henderson's case?Shark TaleMs. Henderson's attorneys cited the Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals case of Hansen v. Academy, Ltd., where Kimberly Hansen, an unsuspecting customer, was apparently in awe of a large inflatable shark that was part of a boat display on the sidewalk in front of an Academy sporting goods store.So mesmerized by the inflatable shark was Ms. Hansen that she proceeded to walk straight into the tongue of the boat, causing her to trip and break both her arms. Ms. Hansen sued Academy, but a trial court ruled for the sporting goods store, holding that the boat tongue was an open and obvious condition.But, remember...Jaws had a sequel.Ms. Hansen appealed, and the intermediate appellate court ruled for her. Noting an Academy employee testified the purpose of the inflatable shark was to get people's attention, the appellate court reversed the trial court's grant of summary judgment to Academy, holding that, although the boat tongue was visible, the plastic, air-filled fish of terror changed the legal outcome."The evidence certainly raised a question of fact as to whether Academy intended for its customers to devote their attention to the merchandise on display rather than to the sidewalk," the appellate court held in Hansen. Unfortunately for Ms. Henderson, U.S. District Judge James Payne wasn't buying the shark argument in her case.Noting that arrows on the cantaloupe boxes actually pointed to exposed pallet on cantaloupe display, Judge Payne held the inflatable shark case didn't apply."Because the cantaloupe display actually drew attention to the alleged hazardous condition, the Hansen case is distinguishable and does not provide an exception to the open and obvious rule," the judge wrote.The lesson of our Case of the Week? Apparently, at least in Oklahoma, a cornucopia of cantaloupes provides no exception to the open and obvious rule...but, an inflatable shark does._______________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/03/law-cantaloupes-and-inflatable-sharks#ixzz1HonZsGj9March 13, 2011The Sixth Amendment and another Texas Chicken Ranchby David HorriganIn the film adaptation of the Broadway musical, The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas, Burt Reynolds, playing a Texas sheriff, falls in love with Dolly Parton, portraying the good-natured, warm-hearted proprietor of a local brothel. That theatrical house of ill-repute was based on a real life bordello known as the La Grange Chicken Ranch.Although many local residents supported the Chicken Ranch -- and the entertainment and tax dollars it brought to Greater La Grange -- its closing involved law enforcement at the highest levels of Texas government.For those whove always wanted yet another sequel, we have one for you. It doesn't have Ms. Parton, Mr. Reynolds...or even Dom DeLuise. What is does have is an intriguing question of constitutional law, which is why it gets to be our Case of the Week.Texas cathouse jurisprudence now considers: Does memory loss render a witness absent for purposes of the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution?Before we get to any of that legal stuff in the case of Woodall v. Texas, let's take a look at the story of the latest little whorehouse in Texas.Naughty HaremPhyllis Anne Woodall may or may not have a lot in common with Dolly Parton's Best Little Whorehouse in Texas character, Miss Mona Stangley, but Texas prosecutors alleged they were in the same profession.Ms. Woodall was the co-owner and operator of the Naked Harem, an El Paso, Tex., establishment some would refer to euphemistically as a "gentlemen's club." Ms. Woodall and her business partner, Jeannie Coutta, ran a strip joint empire, El Paso Cosmopolitan, which not only operated the Naked Harem, but also its sibling club, the El Paso Cosmopolitan Topless Show Bar.Sadly for the ladies and their clients, those Texas prosecutors thought they were having a little too much fun.After repeated incidents of alleged prostitution at the Naked Harem, authorities arrested the ladies, charging Ms. Woodall with aggravated promotion of prostitution and engaging in organized criminal activity.At trial, prosecutors called dancers who testified prostitution was plentiful at the club, while Naked Harem loyalists testifying for Ms. Woodall cited Naked Harem policy forbidding dancers from having sex with its gentile clientele. Ms. Woodall then called a dancer, Lucia Pinedo, to testify.It was a bad move.Forget Me NotMs. Pinedo testified she sustained memory loss after an automobile accident and that she could not remember her prior testimony before a grand jury -- nor could she remember even being part of the Naked Harem. However, when Ms. Pinedo didn't show up for a subsequent day of the trial, prosecutors -- over Ms. Woodall's objections -- read her grand jury testimony for the jury.Before the grand jury, Ms. Pinedo had testified she had sex with patrons many times in the club's private rooms, and -- in an unfortunate turn of events for Ms. Woodall -- Ms. Pinedo testified that, although she lied about her age to Naked Harem staffers, she was only 15-years-old when she began dancing at the club. To make matters worse, Ms. Pinedo contradicted the testimony of one of Ms. Woodall's managers who said Ms. Pinedo showed a birth certificate as part of her identification upon being hired.Instead, in a moment worthy of X-rated versions of High School Musical or Glee, Ms. Pinedo testified her identification to get her job as an exotic entertainer was not her birth certificate, but was, in fact, her high school ID card.As they did with the La Grange Chicken Ranch, the good people of Texas may turn the other cheek when it was just a bunch of adults having consenting, albeit illegal, fun...prostitution by 15-year-olds is a very different story.After prosecutors made numerous references to Ms. Pinedo's impressionable youth during closing arguments, the jury sentenced Ms. Woodall to 16 years in prison.Ms. Woodall appealed, arguing, among other things, that introducing Ms. Pinedo's grand jury testimony was a violation of Ms. Woodall's rights under the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution because Ms. Pindeo's memory loss prevented Ms. Woodall from being able to cross-examine her.Constitutional ConfrontationA Texas intermediate appellate court reversed the trial court and sided with Ms. Woodall, holding that allowing prosecutors to read Ms. Pinedo's grand jury testimony to jurors despite her memory loss violated Ms. Woodall's Sixth Amendment Rights because the State used out-of-court testimonial statements [the grand jury testimony] about which the declarant [Ms. Pinedo] could not be cross-examined due to memory loss.The state argued also that, because Ms. Woodall refused the trial judge's offer to issue a so-called writ of attachment forcing Ms. Pinedo to return to continue her testimony, Ms. Woodall was precluded from arguing Ms. Pinedo was absent for Confrontation Clause purposes.However, Ms. Woodall argued that Ms. Pinedo's memory loss made recalling her futile, and the intermediate appellate court agreed."She did not remember giving the grand jury statement, nor could she remember working at the Naked Harem. A writ of attachment would not have changed Pinedo from an absent witness into a witness available for trial and examination. Her undisputed testimony about the car accident and resulting memory loss established that she was unavailable as a witness regarding the relevant subject matter," the intermediate appellate court held.Yet, in another legal twist, on Mar. 2, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, the states highest court for criminal matters, reversed the intermediate appellate court on both issues.First, citing three U.S. Supreme Court decisions, California v. Green, Delaware v. Fensterer, and United States v. Owens, the Texas high court rejected the argument that a Confrontation Clause violation could be based on witness memory loss.Second, Ms. Pinedo's memory loss notwithstanding, the court held Ms. Woodall's failure to take the trial judge up on the offer to haul Ms. Pinedo back into court was fatal to her Confrontation Clause argument. The court said Ms. Woodard induced the alleged error of which she now complains, and she may not argue on appeal that her confrontation rights were violated.In the movie, Burt and Dolly went off happily into the sunset. It doesn't look as though thats happening here._________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/03/sixth-amendment-and-another-texas-chicken-ranch#ixzz1HaDgOkKeMarch 6, 2011Labor, Lassie, and the LawIts been a tough week for the First Amendment and labor unions, but perhaps not for puppies.In this space, we attempt to look at the lighter side of the law, but there's just nothing funny about a Marine making the ultimate sacrifice for his country or alleged followers of Jesus thinking the Messiah wants them desecrating other people's religious services. However, Americas courts never let us down when we need comic relief, and free speech cases are no exceptionThis week, California's Second District Court of Appeal ruled on a particularly perplexing constitutional quandary. It's a question not yet addressed in the current labor unrest in Wisconsin:Does labor union speech enjoy greater constitutional protection than speech about puppies?Well give you the court's answer in Best Friends Animal Socy v. Macherich Westside Pavilion Prop., LLC, in a moment, but let's start off by saying that -- not unlike fallen heroes and violated funerals -- theres nothing funny about animal abuse or unfair labor practices. Nevertheless, what we've got here is an appellate court of law weighing the constitutional rights of terriers versus Teamsters.Puppies and PicketersThe Best Friends Animal Society does good work. Not only does the Utah-based organization have adoption programs for dogs and cats, it has programs for parrots and pigs as well. In addition, it operates an animal sanctuary, and its Pup My Ride program transports dogs from overpopulated areas to places where they are more likely to find homes.Best Friends also operates the Puppies Aren't Products campaign with the stated goals of fighting against so-called puppy mills and irresponsible breeding.One of the weapons in Puppies Arent Products arsenal is the staging of protests at shopping malls where the evil puppy mills alleged middle men -- the pet shops -- attempt to sell their canine cargo.Although Puppies Arent Products bills its mission as a fight against the puppy mills, unlike more militant animal rights groups, Puppies Arent Products stresses the peaceful nature of its protests...a Gandhi for golden retrievers, if you will.Peaceful or not, one shopping center didn't want to give the puppy protesters free rein over its establishment. When Puppies Arent Products targeted the Barkworks Pups & Stuff store at Los Angeles Westside Pavilion, the owners of the mall swung into action.Not unlike abortion protesters at a Democratic convention or anti-war protesters at a Republican convention, the puppy protesters were confined to undesirable areas -- in this case, mall space far away from Barkworks. Incidentally, Barkworks denies its dogs come from puppy mills, stating it takes great pride in having built a reputation of bringing healthy, happy puppies to loving families and homes.Look for the Union Label?Westside Pavilion had rules about when people could protest in its common areas. The rules applied to so-called noncommercial expressive activity, and covered various forms of expression, such as political and religious speech, soliciting for signatures on petitions, and the dissemination of noncommercial leaflets and fliers.The rules were what constitutional lawyers call content neutral, meaning the rules didnt vary depending on what a speaker was saying. There was just one catch.Labor unions got special treatment.The mall had special rules for qualified labor activity, which was defined, in part, as activity authorized by the National Labor Relations Act NLRA or applicable state labor laws.Non-labor expressive activity -- such as the puppy protest -- was limited to certain areas of the mall and was subject to certain blackout days, days when no protests were allowed, such as the busy business days of Valentines Day, Halloween, and the Christmas shopping season.In contrast, labor expressive activity had no blackout dates, and the workers' expression could take place near the targeted, allegedly union-busting establishment.The litigating Lassie lawyers saw this distinction as the way to get the puppy protesters within pawsteps of the alleged villains at Barkworks.Collies in CourtBest Friends sued Westside Pavilion's owners in California state court, arguing the mall's restrictions violated the free speech provisions of article I, section 2 of the California Constitution. Specifically, Best Friends argued, among other things, that it was unconstitutional for the mall to give labor union protesters preferential treatment over the Puppies Arent Products protesters.Westside Pavilion countered that the restrictions passed constitutional muster and that the mall was forced to give labor union protesters special treatment in order to comply with state and federal labor law.The mall won the first round when California Superior Court Judge Linda Lefkowitz ruled against the puppy protesters, holding that, under the 1997 California appellate decision, Union of Needletrades, Indus. & Textile. Emp. V. Superior Court, the shopping mall was within its rights to limit the activities of the puppy protesters and that the NLRA and state law required the mall to make special accommodations for labor protesters.But, this dogfight wasnt over.Best Friends appealed and found a more fur-friendly tribunal in California's Second District Court of Appeal. In a 3-0 decision on Mar. 2, the appellate court overturned Judge Lefkowitz, and ruled in favor of the puppy protesters.The appellate court rejected the holding of the case on which Judge Lefkowitz relied and instead followed two other California appellate decisions, H-CHH Associates. V. Citizens for Representative Government and Snatchko v. Westfield LLC, in holding the mall could not restrict the puppy protesters in the manner it sought, and it rejected the mall's preferential treatment of labor protesters.The appellate court said the mall suggests that the law compels it to discriminate. But federal and state laws do not require shopping malls to give labor speech more access to common areas than political and other types of free speech.Celebrating its victory and the apparent end of Puppies Arent Products banishment to the dark corners of the mall where one wouldn't expect to find Jennifer Grey, Best Friends issued a statement entitled, Nobody Puts Baby in a Corner.______________________________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner:http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/03/labor-lassie-and-law
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Pak Pura, Palekbang, Pangkal Pisang, Parit, Pasir Badak, Pasir Ganda, Pasir Ha, Pasir Hor, Pasir Jelatang, Pasir Pekan, Pasir Tumboh, Patek, Pauh, Pauh Sembilan, Paya Mengkuang, Pek, Selising, Temangan, Pemanok, Pendek, Pengkalan, Pengkalan Chepa, Pengkalan Datu, Pengkalan Nangka, Peringat, Periok, Permatang Pusu, Permatang Sungkai, Perol, Perupok, Pintu Gang, Pulai Chondong, Pulau, Pulau Belachan, Pulau Belanga, Pulau Besar, Pulau Gajah, Pulau Kundor, Pulau Menseta, Pulau Pak Amat, Pulau Panjang, Pulau Pisang, Pulong, Raja, Relai, Relai Selatan, Relai Utara, Renok, Repek, Rupek, Rusa, Sakar, Salor, Seberang Pasir Mas, Selehong Selatan, Selehong Utara, Seligi, Semerak, Semut Api, Senak, Seribong, Sering, Setek, Seterpa, Simpangan, Siti Manis, Sokor, Sungai Pinang, Tabar, Takang, Talak, Tanjong, Tanjong Chat, Tanjong Jering, Tanjong Mas, Tanjong Pauh, Tanjung Chat, Tapang, Tasik, Tasik Berangan, Tebing Tinggi, Tegayong, Telekong, Teliar, Telipok, Telok Baru, Telok Bharu, Telok Kitang, Telok Kandis, Telok Mesira, Telok Renjuna, Telong, Temesu, Temu Ranggas, Tendong, Tengah, Tepus, Tikat, Tiong, Tok Bali, Tok Bok, Tok Junuh, Tok Ku, Tok Sangkot, Tok Sangkut, Tok Uban, Tualang Salak, Tujoh, Tumpat, Tunjong, Ulu Kusial, Ulu Nenggiri, Ulu Sat, Wakaf Bharu, Wakaf Delima, Wakaf Siku, Wakaf Stan, Kemaman, Dungun, Besut, Marang, Hulu Terengganu, Alur Limbat, Atas Tol, Bandar Dungun, Bandi, Banggul, Batu Buruk, Batu Rakit, Belara, Besul, Bukit Besar, Bukit Kenak, Bukit Payong, Bukit Puteri, Cabang Tiga, Caluk, Cenering, Chalok, Chukai, Gelugur Kedai, Gelugur Raja, Guntung, Hulu Berang, Hulu Besut, Hulu Cukai, Hulu Jabur, Hulu Nerus, Hulu Paka, Hulu Setiu, Hulu Telemung, Jenagor, Jengai, Jerangau, Jerung, Kampong Raja, Keluang, Kemasik, Kepung, Kerandang, Kerteh, Kijal, Kuala Abang, Kuala Berang, Kuala Besut, Kuala Dungun, Kuala Ibai, Kuala Paka, Kuala Telemung, Kubang Parit, Kumpal, Losong, Manir, Merang, Merchang, Cukai, Jenagur, Kertih, Kuala Nerus, Mercang, Paluh, Pasir Raja, Pasir Semut, Pengadang Buluh, Penghulu Diman, Pulau Redang, Pulau-Pulau, Rasau, Rengas, Serada, Sura, Tanggul, Tersat, Tebak, Teluk Kalung, Tuk Jamal, Pangkalan Nangka, Setiu, Pasir Akar, Air Jernih, Air Putih, Kampung Raja, Pelagat, Pulau Kerengga, Pulau Perhentian, Kampung Rusila, Setiu, Tembila, Tenang, Tok Jamal, Temerloh, Bentong, Maran, Pekan, Bera, Raub, Jerantut, Lipis, Cameron highland, Bukit Fraser, Endau, Kuala Lipis, Muadzam Shah I, Muadzam Shah II, Padang Tengku, Rompin I, Rompin II, Rompin III, Rompin IV, Teras, Tioman, Batu Talam, Batu Yon, Bebar, Beserah, Budu, Bukit Segumpal, Cheka, Chenor, Dong, Gali, Ganchong, Hulu Cheka, Hulu Jelai, Hulu Kuantan, Hulu Lepar, Hulu Telom, Hulu Tembeling, Jenderak, Kechau, Kelola, Keratong, Kerdau, Kertau, Kuala Kuantan, Kuala Pahang, Kuala Tembeling, Lebak, Lepar, Lipat Kajang, Luit, Mengkarak, Mentakab, Burau, Damak, Pedah, Pahang Tua, Cheroh, Durian Tawar, Jeransang, Kechau Tui, Kerambit, Kuala Kerau, Kuala Rompin, Lancang, Lubok Tamang, Mela, Merapuh, Penjom, Ringlet, Rpsb Kg. Pagar, Sri Jaya, Taman Jelai, Telemong, Tranum, Pelangai, Penor, Penyor, Pulau Manis, Pulau Rusa, Pulau Tawar, Sabai, Sanggang, Sega, Semantan, Semantan Ulu, Songsang, Tanah Rata, Tanjong Besar, Teh, Telang, Temai, Tembeling, Pulau Tioman, Ulu Cheka, Ulu Dong, Ulu Jelai, Ulu Kuantan, Ulu Lepar, Ulu Telom, Ulu Tembeling, Felcra, Sungai Sepuluh, Anak Endau, Batu Sawar, Berhala Gantang, Bohor Bharu, Bukit Ibam, Bukit Kajang, Bukit Serok, Chemomoi, Chendera Chincin, Jayaputra, Kampong Jemuru, RPS Kedaik, Kampung Ubai, Kuala Medang, Pahang Tenggara, Paya Laman, Paya Puyu, Pesagi, Sentosa, Sungai Kambang, Sungai Ling, Sungai Pengawal, Sungai Poho, Sungai Temau, Sri Makmur, Tembangau, Tembeling Tengah, Kampung Bantal, Ulu Jenut, Bukit Pedoman, Sungai Kahang, Batu 3 ½ Paloh, Mawai Baru, Sungai Melikai, Kuala Kabong, Pogoh, Sri Mersing, Sekijang, Simpang Renggam, Sungai Layau, Sri Mahkota, Kampong Awat, Sungai Kesang, Sri Wangi, Johor Tenggara, Sungai Semberong, Tanah Abang, Nasaruddin Belia, Titi Gantong, Sungai Manila, Redang Punggur, Seri Gala, Bendang Besar, Gunung Tunggal, Kampung Kurnia, Sungai Malau, Chepor, Kampung Perlis, Kledang Sayong, Kampung Jasa, Changkat Sulaiman, Jalan Karchu, Estet Changkat Jong, Seberang Perak, Bukit Jelai, Temeris, Purun, Lakai, Durian Daun, Kerangai Penagoh, Pondoi, Gagu, Bukit Sedanan, Sri Mendapat, Ramuan China, Besar kecil , Bertam Malim, Teluk Menteri, Lembah Bernam, Semungkis, Batu 8 Sijangkang, Sri Bandi, Keruak, Bukit Kapah, Limau Nipis, Pondok Nyamok, Bukit Jetit, Bukit Sudu, Bukit Keladi, Bukit Kesing, Panchor Merah, Darat Datok, Jongok Batu, Kampung Wa, Pasir Pelata, Banggol Gajah Mati, Bukit Gedup, Pelong, Panggong Lalat, Bukit Tandak, Tumbi Rapat, Gual Dalam, Berangan Mek Nab, Teratak Batu, Lubuk Sireh, Weng, Kubang Kenyeng, Bukit Selambau, Ulu Sedim, Pulau Belantik, Iboi Tiak, Sungai Senam, Banggol Rashid, Tasik Kacang Puri, Felda Raja Alias, Trolak, Mempaga, Jengka, Sahabat, Lahad Datu, Bukit Rokan Barat, Utara, Jalor, Jelai , Lui Barat, Muda, Selatan, Timur, Palong, Pasoh, Sungai Kelamah, Permai, Serampang, Tongkat, Chempelak, Barat, Kahang Barat, Kemelah, Layang-layang, Maokil, Medoi, Nitar, Palong Timur, Pemanis, Redong, Sri Ledang, Ulu Belitong, Ulu Dengar, Ulu Penggeli, Tun Ghafar Machap, Menggong, Kemendore, Bukit Senggeh, Hutan Percha, Aring , Chiku, Kemahang, Perasu, Bukit Goh, Bukit Sagu, Chini, Chini Timur, Kampung New Zealand, Lepar Hilir, Lepar Utara, Selanchar, Selendang, Panching Timur, Sungai Panching Selatan, Sungai Panching Utara, Bersia, Gunung Besout, Gedangsa, Kampung Soeharto, Lawin Selatan, Lawin Utara, Lasah, Nenering, Papulut, Sungai Behrang, Sungai Klah, Sungai Tengi Selatan, Trolak Selatan, Felda Adela, Air Tawar, Bukit Aping Barat, Bukit Aping Timur, Bukit Easter, Bukit Ramun, Bukit Wa Ha, Inas Utara, Kledang, Linggiu, Lok Heng Barat, Lok Heng Selatan, Lok Heng Timur, Pasak, Pasir Raja Ismail Bin Dahlan, Penggeli Timur, Papan Timur, Sening, Semenchu, Simpang Wa Ha, Sungai Mas, Sungai Sayong Z, Sungai Sibol, Taib Andak, Tenggaroh Selatan, Tenggaroh Timur, Tunggal, Ulu Tebrau, Bukit Damar, Bukit Mendi, Bukit Puchong, Chegar Perah, Jenderak Selatan, Jenderak Utara, Kemasul, Kampung Sertik, Krau, Kumai, Lakum, Lembah Klau, Lurah Bilut, Mayam, Mengkuang, Rentam, Sebertak, Sungai Kemahal, Sungai Koyan, Tementi, Tersang, Bukit Bading, Chalok Barat, Cherul, Jerangau Barat, Mengkawang T, Neram, Selasih, Seberang Tayor, Tenang Besut, Batu Lapan, Guar Napai, Bukit Tangga, Gunung Bongsu Fadzil Bin Mansor, Laka Selatan, Lubuk Merbau, Mata Air, Rimba Mas, Teloi Timur, Jengka , Bukit Tajau, Kota Gelanggi, Kampung Awah, Padang Piol, Sungai Nerek, Sungai Retang, Sungai Tekam, Sungai Tekam Utara, Umas, United, Plantation, Berhad, Sime, Darby, Sendirian, Sdn, Bhd, IOI, Corporations, Hap Seng, Holdings, Global, Ventures, Fima, Corp, Kelapa, Sawit, Getah, Guthrie, Golden Hope, Estate, Kilang, Ladang, Risda, FGV, Fama, Mpob, Mardi, 1MDB, Yayasan, Tabung, Haji, hj, Minyak, Lkim, Mara, Lhdn, Lembaga, Hasil, Dalam, Negeri, Uda, Kejora, Tenggara, Air Tawar Endau, Asrakal, Baharu, Bakar Batu, Danga, Bay, Bahru, Batu 10, Batu Mor, Belukar Juling, Belukat Juling, Berata, Bukit Pasir, Bukit Treh, Dato Bentara Dalam, Luar, Dato Sulaiman Menteri, Dato' Haji Abdul Ghani Othman, Gubah, Gudang Garam, Hubong, Jalan, Tok Raja, Jasa Sepakat, Jaya Sepakat, Jeram Tepi, Chokro, Merdeka, Batu Pahat, Muhibbah, Nong Chik, Parit Selangor, Petani, Satey, Sungai Gersik, Kastam, Kelicap, Kenangan, Bukit Bakri, Tun Dr Ismail, Tun Syed Nasir, Koris, Kurnia, Lapangan Terbang Senggarang, Laut, Londang Batu, Maju Jaya, Makmur, Mawar, Melayu Majidee, Melayu Niyor, Mensudut Lama, Merbau, Nelayan, Tanjung Balau, Orang Asli , Pasir Intan, Padang, Pandan, Pantai Layang, Darat, Belahan Tampok, Parit , Besar, Bugis, Bunga, Jamil, Jelutong Laut, Kangkar, Kassan, Keroma, Parit Keroma Darat, Marjunit, Panjang, Payong, Pechah, Pelampong, Penyengat, Peropok, Rabu, Raja Darat, Seri Paya, Seri Tanjong, Setongkat, Zing, Paya Dalam, Kasang, Paya Lebar, Pertanian, Pinang, Pulau Penarek, Sebong, Semaloi, Semanyir, Semanyir Darat, Sendok, Pasir Gudang, Serdang Baru, Seri Bukit Batu, Sri Tanjung, Sri Amar Di Raja, Sri Tanjong, Sungai Bagan, Sungai Balang Besar, Sungai Bebuta, Berong, Gersik Muar, Kapal, Keladi, Sungai, Mati, Kelat, Kemudi, Merlong, Muda Muar, Kampong, Sudah, Tiram, Ulu Tiram, Tanjung, Agas, Gading, Gading Laut, Sengkawang, Temiang, Telok Lipat, Temang, Teriang Besar, Teriang Kecil, Triang Besar, Alor, setar, Berah, Buloh, Gandak, Gelegah, Gonchar, Janggos, Keriang, Madi, Melintang, Melong, Mengkudu, Pangsa, Pea, Selut, Semadun, Semela, Senjaya, Terong, Malai, Lorong, Baru, Keluncor, Belakang Stadium, Belukar, Benggali, Berjaya, Bok Bok, Burhan, Che Poh, Chegar, Chepoh, Dahlia, Dalam Kota, Ganding, Gelong Ayer, Gerigis, Gunung Sali, Sau, Haji Saoud, Hashim Lebai Din, Hilir, Hilir Tandop, Hujong Alor Merah, Huma, Hutan, Gelagah, Kandeh, Jalan Dato Kumbar, Jawa, Jerangan, Seberang, Masjid, Kandang Kuda, KCS, Kebun Pinang, Kelompang, Mukim Derga, Keriang Pulau, Tebu, Kilat, Kolam, Kuala Alor, Kuar, Kubang Bongor, Kubang, Buaya, Jambu, Lintah, Pangas, Kubang Raja, Rotan, Siam, Tampang, Teduh, Kubur, Lahar Buaya, Legar Pantai Johor, Lehar Budi, Lemping, Lentang Kubang Jawi, Lubok Peringgi, Maseh, Masjid Lama, Luyung, Matang Kong Atas, Mempelam, Mentalon, Hutan Kampung, Haji Burhan, Padang Besar, Capa, Hang, Wat, Pak Putih, Parit Buaya, Pegawai, Pengapit Batu, Penghulu, Hashim, Lama, Pengkalan Keriang, Peremba, Permatang Gunung, Piew, Pondok, Sakan, Tandop, Alur, Nyonya, Pantai Johor, Terus, Selarong, Kanan, Lalang Kiri, Sematang Bogak, Simpang Empat Gunong, Suka Menanti, Sungai Baru, Tandop Kuala Sungai, Bedil, Bendahara, Seri, Telaga Tengah, Teluk, Kandih, A, B, Tengah Padang, Teluk Bagan, Tenteram, Keling, Tok, Bidan, Din, Jering, Kassim, Ku Kiah, Layang, Murad, Resat, Sabil, Sadu, Seron, Tunku Lat, Wadilhana, Ambing, Asam Jawa, Ayer Kembai, Lubok Pedati, Glugor, Bonggol, Lada, Leban, Petai, Saga, Setang, Wan Mat, Bangsan, Batu 7, Batu 8, Bawah Gunong, Becah Sawa, Belangga Kuala, Bendang Darat, Sera, Bukit, Datuk Harun, Hitam, Payang, Puyuh, Sebelah, Tengiling, Giling, Kaya, Cerok Sotong, Charok, Akar, Bunting, Gorok, Juan, Kelian, Ulu, Putih, Salang, Tilam, Che Wan Jusoh, Chegar Tok Bandar, Chenarai, Chenerai, Cherok, Nau, Sotong, Chorok, Kapas, Ker, Saling, Dalam Rimau, Dato Batu 43, Dusun, Gani, Gabus, Gertak Serong, Haji Abas, Yunus, Jalan Jenalik, Kebun Ubi, Keledang Dalam, Kelian Dalam, Ketemba, Kememeh, Balok, Kedua, Kubor Tok Ali, Lahar, Lanai, Legong, Lela, Kabu, Pedati, Makliah, Mali, Batu 48 1/4, Km 77, Hujong, Hujung, Mengkuang Masjid, Mengkuang Tengah, Murni, Nering, Chik Mas, Padang Ketemba, Pajak, Lubuk Pedati, Parit Pandang, Gua Kelambu, Paya Pulai, Pecah Tok Bulan, Pokok, Setol, Rambong, Rumah Besi, Sekolah Bonggor, Seladang Rebah, Bulan, Seri Ketengga, Siput, Sirako, Limau, Tas, Tembak, Surau, Langsat, Pari, Batu 44 1/2, Pendiat, Perah, Hulu, Sanau, Teduri, Temelah, Tok Patah, Temusu, Mentaling, Diah, Golok, Lipan, Saban, Sonan, Bok, Wat Siam, Weng Dalam, Bandar baharu, 300 Kaki, Balai, Sungai Kecil, Baru Sungai Buaya, Belakang Pekan, Besar Sungai Buaya, Tok Gula, Taban, Tebuan, Kilang Batu, Kubu, Maka Suah, Masjid Sungai Kecil Hilir, Matang Simpor, Padang Relau, Sungai Kecil Hilir, Parit Nibong, Parit Teropong, Pasir Debu, Paya Kemian, Relau Bandar Baru, Permatang Kerat Telunjuk, Sungai Tepus, Tebok Mat Rashid, Tengah Pekan Relau, Ulu Relau, bedong, Bakar Sampah, Baru Bedong, Bendang Dalam, Haji Ngah, Kuala Muda Estate, Lebai Ali, Matang Samak, Pengkalan Bujang, Pisang, Genting, Kedai Keling, Deraka, Pial, Tok Pawang, Telaga China, Tempoyak, Tupah, Bukit Kuang, Batu 16, 17, 18, 21, Belakang Sekolah Gurun, Belinda, Belinga Siam, Bongkok, Chempedak, Gual Nanas, Jumaat, Stesen, Jalan Kilang Bata, Jelatang, Kepala 30, Kepala Bukit, Kilang Papan, Kubur Lama, Lubuk Reba, Manggol Lalang, Masjid Baru, Padang Bongkok, Lumat, Pasir, Paya Serdang, Jeniang, Pulau Chengai, Selamat Air Puteh, Ibor, Kunyit, Saberang, Tok Rama, Titi Batu, Titi Bom, Titi Teras, Tok Kau, Ulu Teroi, Baru Kura, Bentong Dalam, Berona, Kiri, Bigia, Bukit Hangus, Chemara, Dahaman, Dusun Pengapit, Jeram Buaya, Kota Bukit, Berok, Hai, Kerik, Ruman, Kubang Yoi, Kura, Langgok Tanjong, Chichak, Pulut, Ragut, Pasir Pokok, Pokok Jerai, Shanghai, Semiar, Setar, Tala, Janggus, Tok Chik, Aman, Ason, Banai, Bata, Batu 17, Jalan Kodiang, Biak, Budi, Buluh Nipis, Celam, Celong, Changkat, Tok Raman, Chegar Jeram, Latah, Mokan, Gelong Rambai, Guar Jeram, Tanah, Rancangan, Rang, Hosba, Setali, Terabak, Iman, J, Jenalik, Kebun Jalil, Kelubi, Kemunting, Kepala Batu, Ketul, Kota Mengkuang, Kota Rentang, Kun Luang, Lembah, Lembah Abu, Arang, Lembah Bata, Kawah, Macang, Manggol, Muhibah, Napor, Natoi, Nongka, Asam, Asun, Belanga, Curah, Ludap, Perahu, Pahana, Pantai Halban, Parit Tok Lam, Pasir Tambun, Kecut, Kerchut, Pulau Dudur, Pedang Pekan, Penia, Perupuk, Pochong, Kain, Kecil, Ketam, Maharaja, Nyior, Pak Ubin, Timbul, Kapor, Putus, Tebing, Ara, Malik, Tengiri, Temalang, Titi Panjang, Jalai, Kesop, Tambak, Ya, Wan Perah, KODIANG, Batu 1 Sanglang, Batu 4, Batu 5, Bukit Hantu, Bulang, Logan, Damai, Guar, Batu Hitam, Hutan Palas, Beruang, Chenok, Menerong, Menerong Dalam, Lubok Remia, Melele, Meribut, Pak Chik, Periang, Siputeh, SC, Kepak, Wang, KOTA KUALA MUDA, Alor Bemban, Jawi, Bakar Arang, Batu 45, Damar, Kecil Simpor, Meriam, Tukang Jusoh, Dusun Tua, Hujong Matang, Kepala Jalan, Komoi, Masjid Batu, Nangka, Regent, Salim, Pantai Merdeka, Bukit Kecil, Permatang, Katong, Ringan, Pulau Sayak, Teluk Nipah, Sireh, Emas, Korok, Reba, Yu, Telaga Batu, Amboi, Bayu, Bilik, KOTA SARANG SEMUT, Gelanggang, Nan, Pinggu, Pudak, Terjun, Tok Ya, Haji Seman, Wan Awang, Jalan Pendang, Batas Baru, Chepat, Choras, Kokbah, Tok Chun, Buluh Lima, Datok Abdullah, Gelam Tiga, Haji Mehat, Jemerlang, Kilang Baru, Sala, Sula, Sungai Daun Tengah, Kota Sarang Semut, Padang Peninjau, Buluh, Tepi Laut, Perpat, Jerat, Mas, Nyiur, Sala Kecil, Selamat, Simpang 3, Simpang 4, Atas, Sungai Dedap, Chentang, Chentong, KUALA KEDAH, Buluh Lima Dalam, Peninjau, Daun, Dedap, Ibus, Batas Paip, Berembang Panjang, Cina, Hutan Putus, Seberang Kampung Baru, Kilang Ice, Ais, Madrasah, Megat Ali, Garam, Pergam, Selarong Batak, Sematang Pinang, Papan, Pasai, Song, KUALA NERANG, Aceh, Alor Nibong, Apel, Dogol, Pong, Baru Belimbing Kanan, Khas, Lembah Permai, Tualak, Luas, Kuala, Bendang, Larik, Nambua, Nyamok, Tembaga, Charok Manora, Durian Burong, Hijrah, Janing, Pai, Palas, Labi, Malaysia, Lubuk, Tok Wi, Magak, Musa, Naiteh, Chanderai, Lanjut, Pasir putih, Paya Terap, Pecah Gadong, Pengkalan Tok Puteh, Perik, Pokka, Pokok Machang, Pong Utara, Pulau Kijang, Rumia Manis, Seberang Paya, Telok Belanga, Tong Plu, Wawasan, KUALA PEGANG, Kampung Batu, Bukit Hilir, Bukit Hitam, Cerok, Tilan, Keledang, Keminis, Balut, Cenerai, Bat, Pegang, Ketumba, Toi, Seberang Titi, Telok Perah, Titi Melintang, KULIM, Balik Bukit, Batu 6, Batu 8 1/2, Kukus, Sarang Ayam, Sidam, Deka, Ekor Kucing, Gajah Merangkak, Guar Lobak, Keda, Mukim, Kemumbong, Kong Kedah, Bunut, Jerong, Kubang Sapi, Meiha, Lesong Tujuh, Lubok Saga, Padang Buluh, Edau, Jemerli, Union, Permatang Tok Dik, Tanjong Belit, Binu, Tesong, Tujuh, Titi Karangan, Tok Iman, Ujung, Air Merah, Ayer Kepar, Ayer Merah, Enggok, Baru Air Merah, Baru Kuala Nau, Batu 3, Jalan Lunas, Bikan Atas, Junjung, Haji Arshad, Jernang, Jubai, Bawah, Kilang Sago, Machang Bubuk, Bola, Penyangga, Paya Tok Betuk, Permatang Tiong, Pondok Labu, Pong Ah Yong, Sungai Badak, Syed Shekh, Terus Gading, Tok Rasul, Ulu Bakai, LANGGAR, Melentang, Pak Ngah, Rela, Sekawan, Senibong, Kepala Kota, Haji Naik Kayu, Hutan Gelam, Juara Tua, Kandai, Keramat, Lubok Keriang, Makam, Pagar Ayer, Pantai Jamai, Permatang Limau, Pokok Asam, Pondok Tasak, Pulau Binjal, Tanjong Inggeris, Telaga Bata, Terong Asam, Sibil, Temenggong, LANGKAWI, Bakau Kelibang, Ewa, Asah, Belak, Belanga Pecah, Belibis, Bendang Baru, Berendam, Chantek, Merah, Bubor, Cengkuan, Hantu, Kemboja, Morang, Puteh, Tok Putri, Tekoh, Chenarong, Chendek Kura, Benta, Dato Bakar, Durian Perangin, Felcra Kok, Geronggang, Kelibang, Kenyum, Ketapang, Kilim, Kisap, Kok, Chenang, Kubang Badak, Kumpulan, Lawer, Linchai, Cempedak, Etok, Mata Ayer, Mawat, Chabang, Wahid, Ok, Jin, Kuala Triang, Penarik, Perana, Ranggut, KedaWang, Selat, Itau, Kedak, Mati Akar, Menghulu, Nahar, Rhu, Apau, Berembang, Kumbar, Bujur, Tepa, Chanwang, Tinggi, Wang Tok Rendong, Yooi, MERBOK, Bukit Haji Omar, Jilid, Padang Sora, Singkir Badong, Belat, Yoi, Apil, Badong, Nerang, Lubok Ipoh, Bakar Kapor, Bakau, Balek Hutan, Tok Dong, Batin, Belacan, Dua, Empat Belas, Hampar, Sembilan, Tanggok, Begia, Belau, Bendong Tok Teri, Berkas, Berona Kiri Dalam, Beruna, Besah, Bikan, Bok Bak, Iboi, Kechik, Kota Kuala Muda, Lapek, Nambuan, Timah, Tumboh, Caruk, Beleh, Mek Esah, Chanding, Changhai, Beras, Pelanduk, Petata, Sekin, Chenderai, Chuchoh, Dato Syed Ahmad, Datok, Desa, Jaya, Teruna, Ekor Kuching, Gajah Putih, Galai, Genting Palas, Raban, Jalan Baru Sedim, Jerang Belanga, Joget, Jubai Atas, Haji Jamal, Endoi, Carok Bakap, Kepala Dua Puluh, Keda Sadek, Kedat Keling, Kejai, Kelang Ketapan, Kelewang Jatoh, Kemangi, Kepala Parit Dalam, Tanah Seratus, Kepala Parit Luar, Kerawai, Ketumbar, Klong Hoi, Kuli, Samak, Sari, Kuar Lama, Kubas, Laksa, Panggas, Laar Budi, Parang, Pom, Lana Bulu, Lanchok, Ayer Mat, Bedong, Lebai Saman, Lempun, Lindungan Raja, Lorong Ayer Masin, Lubok Dalam, Perong, Pupok, Ma Dam, Mani, Mata, Ayer, Hari, Naik, Matang Pasir, Mergong Indah, Mogo, Nako, Nam Put, Ah Taw, Chapa, Ekor, Patong, Teboran, Temu, Chik, Ubi, Pak, Bahar, Bong, Kuning, Pakra, Pancur, Haji Ahmad, Ketiyu, Menora, Suri, Pekan Sebalah, Permatang Bogak, Kakap, Pak Tani, Satu, Perendam, Permatang Durian, Pupok Acheh, Rambutan, Ranchangan Bukit Tembaga, Sayak, Sebarang, Sedaka Kechil, Selarong Panjang, Sematang, Semeliang, Seratus, Jangkang, Simpor Besar, Belida, Kechil, Kuar Jawa, Nonang, Semir, Tok Rawang, Ular, Tambung Tulang, Tandor, Pak Mayu, Telaga, Long, Teloi Tua, Che Lela, Chengai, Durian, Kandit, Kechai, Kemimeh, Sira, Talipon, Tembak B, Terat Batu, Terbak, Terupok, Tikam Batu Tiga, Titi Haji Idris, Aris, Harun, Karim, Ujong, Bachok, Aman Kandis, Anak, Tembusu, Aur, Babong, Baloh, Baru Hujung, Bayas, Berhala, Beris, Burung Hantu, Changgong, Chengal, Cherang, Sepulai, Gong, Nyatoh, Ali, Wanik, Jembal, Jenerak, Kelerek, Keluat, Rekang, Lelepar, Merabang, Mujur, Nakhoda Saamah, Nyior Kembar, Bual, Pura, Kari, Damat, Senok, Kasar, Tok Kambing, Pauh Jabit, Paya Teratai, Datu, Haji Ali, Petah, Pintu Gerbang, Pohon Tanjung, Sador, Senang, Jenera, Mesira, Teratai, Burung, Cha Keling, Kederat, Mekong, Wakaf, Aik, Zain, Banggol Chichal, Bechah, Semak, Bunut Susu, Chabang Tiga Pendek, Gertak Lembu, Banggol Manok, Putat Tujoh, Pasir puteh, Teliput, Awang, Belah, Gaal, Gedombak, Yong, Bunut Rendang, Changgal, Pulas, Cherang Tuli, Daram Buaya, Ambong, Jebak, Jelor, Pasu, Jerat Semata, Kemal, Kemudu Bongkok, Lepan Rambai, Lubuk Star, Nara, Pak Amat, Tok Syed, Pagar Raja, Panggong Tiga Daerah, Pintu Pupuh, Lima, Saring, Taweh, Telaga Gayong, Telosan, Temila, Tok Nik, Lanas, Linchong, Tukup, Jelur, Kemudu, Padang Siam, Sa, Air, Bol, Dingin, Hijau, Tasek Berangan, Ana, Apa Apa, Awang En Chong, Bakat Hulu, Beta, Che Wan, Kong, Kuin, Lepah, Mek Pit, Pak Mat, Banggul Sekupang, Banir Belikong, Baroh Kok Pauh, Batas Besar, Udang, Dabong, Belahat, Lanjut Panji, Bendang Luas, Berdang, Beris Lanjut, Beting Pauh, Bharu, Bedak, Beranga, China, Ketereh, Ayer Lanas, Perdah, Selar, Tok Ali, Buluh Melintang, Bunat, Buncit, Bungor, Payung, Tok Mak Teh, Chabang Pasir, Chawas, Che Da'ah, Chegar Bedil, Chelah Gu, Chendorong Beta, Hangus, Chondong Bata, Dangai, Darat Demit, Derdap, Durian Badak, Galok, Gebeng, Gelang Mas, Gendang Lima, Geretak Nombor Tiga, Geretek Kuchupu, Chokoh, Datuk, Garu, Guchil, Keding, Serai, Serapat, Sopa, Guai Machang, Hujong Tanjong, Hutan Chengal, Jabir, Jal Besar, Jebang, Jebok, Jembai, Jenereh Kudong, Danan, Jirat, Jubakar, Kaki Itek, Kalor, Rawa, Batu Balai, Kubang Nyior, Seri Mantau, Kayu Tinggi, Kedap, Kelong, Kenanga, Kesina Dua, Semru, Hau, Nal, Batang, Kok Seraya, Keli, Kuing, Kubur Datu, Laka, Lakota, Lapang Pari, Lati, Lemal, Lepang Rambai, Bakap, Mak Kundor, Manan, Meranti Kechik, Merbau Lelabi, Salam, Embon, Pasir Luas, Terang, Tok La, Manjitam, Selamah, Pangkal, Chuit, Jenerih, Jetas, Kerdas, Panji, Puting, Kubor, Sebanjan, Paya Ular, Pengkalan Rambutan, Pengkalangu, Perangkap, Peria, Pohon Taniong, Pusu Empat Puloh, Rambutan Rendang, Rangka Batu, Reka, Relak, Renyok, Resak, Sedar, Sekil, Sempang Pantai, Semuba, Setor Lima, Siram, Takir Dalam, Tal Tujoh, Taman, Tanjong Pagar, Teluk Kandis, Temangan Baru, Bekelam, Terbok, Terusan, Tiong Chandi, Buak, Khamis, Limin, Sidi, Uh, Tunjung, Seri Paduka, Wek, Haji Abdullah Hukum, Baru Tanah Pinggir Merian, Berapi, Koalam, Mentija, Pasir Gembur, Lengkong, Sempang Bukit Kuda, Seri Lanchang, Solok Pantai, Sungai Renggi, Semubuk, Ampang Batu Gadek, Atap, Hitam Ulu, Molek, Bagan Upeh, Banda Kaba, Batak, Gajah Pasir, Asahan, Kuda, Lintang, Punggor, Tambun, Tembakau, Melaka Tengah, Enam, Gedang, Jambatan Duyong, Batu Gajah, On Lok, Kesang Jaya, Kolam Limbongan, Lapan, Tengkera, Mata Kuching, Merlimau Telok, Morten, Musai, Kerbau, Pali, Pandan Mawar, Gantong, Perawas, Sialang, Sidang Seman, Ikan, Rumput, Rama Pantai, Ranggam, Tulang, Pokok Mangga, Portugis, Gedong, Sebatu Bukit, Timor, Solok Musai, Tasek, Teluk Baharu, Tengkera Pantai Dua, Tun Razak, Api Api, Arab, Mantin, Baning, Meleleh, Mambau, Bahasa Kapor, Sirusa, Telok Pelanduk, Rokan, Kelulut, Serambai, Tangga, Tembok, Temensu, Belai, Belangkan, Benal, Bentan, Klawang, Ibol, Kubot, Jambu Lapan, Cheriau, Dato, Abdul Samad, Wong Seng Chau, Denet, Dhobi, Gachong, Tanjung Ipoh, Gelimau, Gemelang, Gemencheh Lama, Gemuroh, Gentam, Geylang, Jelawai, Jelin, Jambatan Serong, Jerlang, Kuala Jerlang, Juar, Kabong, Kampai, Anak Air Garam, Ayer Hati, Bangka Hulu, Gedok, Pekan Air Kuning, Bukit Tempurung, Daching, Dioh, Jelatuk, Londah, Mantai, Mendom, Parit Buloh, Pejadi, Pekan Lenggeng, Pelegong, Machang Hilir, Taling, Tanjung Melintang, Kelaka, Kerangai, Keru, Kongkol, Jerang, Pah, Sawah, Kundur, Kurnia Diraja, Jelebu, Landas, Seri Menanti, Lonek, Tua, Mertang, Minching, Nyatuh, Pak Ka Choon, Panglang, Pedas Hilir, Pelaseh, Pengenting, Pengkalan Durian, Peraku Seberang, Pianggu, Dundang, Pilah Tengah, Puruh, Putra, Rambai Baris, Rangoi, Seperi Tengah, Seri Sikamat, Simpang Gelam, Solok, Sri, Pergai, Gunung Rotan, Kelai, Raya, Rayat, Sampo, Sekawang, Terip, Sungala, Takau, Tampin, Chacha, Jati, Pelandok, Tebat Kening, Tenai, Tengkek, Teriang, Titi Bunga, Gamin, Titi Tinggi, Jalan Padang Besar, FELDA Mata Ayer, Kampong Kastam, Padang Besar, FELDA Rimba Mas, Lubok Sireh, Beseri, Pekan Kaki Bukit, Tasoh, Guar Jentik, Beseri, Tunjong, Chuping, Panggas, Sungai Buloh, Kilang Gula Chuping, Kubang Perun, Guar Nangka, FELDA Chuping, Mata Ayer, Tok Kaya Man, Hutan Temin, Kampung Gial, Santan, Kampong Darat, Paya, Alor Tampang, Padang Lati, Padang Pauh, Kangar, Bintong, Nesam, Abi, Kechor, Hutan Melintang, Telok Kachang, Wang Bintong, Sena, Kampong Sanglang, Repoh, Alor Lanchang, Taman Indera, Tok Peduka, Padang Bohor, Padang Petani, Indera Kayangan, Padang Katong, Derma, Pekan Lama Kangar, Pengkalan Assam, Pekan Baru Kangar, Seberang Bakau, Behor Gandin, Kuala Perlis, Seberang Alor, Hujong Tanjong, Kepala Batas, Seberang Tok Pi, Padang Besar Selatan, Kayang, Titi Tok Bandar, Bangsal Lebah, Temak, Seriab, Gunong Utan Aji, Hujung Batu, Arau, Pauh, Guar Gajah, Padang Siding, Istana, Pekan Arau, Kubang Paya, Tambun Tulang, Kubang Gajah, Jejawi, Kampong Banat, Kampong Surau, Mengkuang Layar, Guar Sanji, Kampong Sena, Behor Mentalon, Chemumar, Serdang, Changkat Jawi, Simpang Empat, Sungai Berembang, Behor Mali, Sungai Bharu, Simpang Empat Che Kasim, Lat Seribu, Sanglang, Bongor Kudong, Bunga Mas, Sungai Padang, Simpang Sanglang, Padang Keria, Kuala Sanglang, Tok Pulau, Kuala Teriang, Ewa, Padang Lalang, Kilim, Ladang Sungai Raya, Wang Tok Rendong, Ulu Melaka, Nyior Chabang, Padang Kandang, Padang Matsirat, Kampung Atas, Bukit Kemboja, Makam Mahsuri, Kuah, Kampung Gelam, Kedawang, Pantai Chenang, Temonyong, Kampung Bayas, Sungai Menghulu, Kelibang, Dundong, Pulau Dayang Bunting, Lubok Chempedak, Kampung Tuba, Kampung Bukit Malut, Bendang Baru, Jerlun, Kota Siputeh, Kampung Bahagia, Kampung Pering, Kampung Kandis, Pekan Kodiang, Kampung Kodiang, Kampung Siputeh, Megat Dewa, Bukit Hantu, Mesjid Paya, Batu 4 Jalan Sanglang, Manggol, Tok Kepak, Sungai Korok, Batas Bengkok, Kampung Sanglang, Kerpan, Ayer Hitam, Padang Sera, Kampung Melele, Kampung Putat, Kampung Imam, Telaga Batu, Padang Perahu, Kampung Pida, Kampung Gurindam, Alor Biak, Kubang Sepat, Lana Bulu, Permatang Paku, Matang Bonglai, Lubok Pinang, Pekan Ayer Hitam, Kampung Gandai, Kubang Nipah, Kubang Pasu, Bukit Kayu Hitam, FELDA Bukit Tangga, Temin, FELDA Laka Selatan, FELDA Batu Lapan, Pekan Baru Changlun, Pekan Lama Changlun, Sintok, Kampung Darat, Guar Napai, Husba, Kampung Napoh, Binjal, Kampung Bemban, Pulau Pisang, Pekan Tunjang, Pulau Timbol, Padang Limau, Pulau Nyior, Kampung Pulau Ketam, Gelong Rambai, Jitra, Paya Kemunting, Kampung Kuluang, Malau, Padang Panjang, Wang Tepus, Taman Jitra Jaya, Taman Rasa Sayang, Taman Pasu, Kampung Telok Nibong, Kampung Batu 13, Taman Jitra, Pantai Halban, Kampung Tok Kesop, Tanah Merah, Kampung Telok Malik, Kampung Naga, Lubuk Kawah, Taman Mahsuri, Alor Rambai, Lubok Batu, Bukit Tinggi, Padang Terap, Kuala Nerang, Padang Sanai, Kubang Palas, Gula Padang Terap, Padang Nyior, Kampung Pisang, Kampung Tanjong, Tualak, Belimbing, Kampung Bendang, Perik, Kurong Hitam, Pekan Kuala Nerang, Rambutan, Kampung Nai Teh, Bukit Tembaga, Kampung Barokhas, Nako Nambua, Pedu, Kuala Tekai, Kampung Musa, Tong Pelu, Kampung Mesjid, Belukar Luas, Kubang Bemban, Tandop Besar, Naka, Lamdin, Nami, FELDA Lubok Merbau A, FELDA Lubok Merbau B, Kampung Mahawangsa Padang Terap, Pokok Sena, Bukit Lada, Kedundong, Derang, Kampung Kejal, Gajah Mati, Bukit Larek, Pekan Bahru Pokok Sena, Pekan Lama Pokok Sena, Kampung Kolon, Jabi, Telaga Mas, Tanjong Musang, Kebun 500, Kepala Bendang, Kampung Menerong, Kampung Padang, Kampung Paya, Kampung Nawa, Bukit Payong, Kubang Leret, Kampung Bukit, Kuala Lanjut, Kampung Panchor, Bukit Pinang, Paya Lengkuas, Titi Baru, Kubang Lintah, Hutan Kampung, Taman Bayu, Kampung Bohor, Lepai, Kampung Sungai Mati, Limbong, Kampung Alor Setol, Pondok Langgar, Kampung Langgar B, Telok Jamat, Alor Senibong, Tualang, Derga, Taman PKNK, Alor Malai, Kampung Telok Sena, Jalan Stadium, Sentosa, Jalan Ambar, Jalan Sheriff, Alor Segamat, Taman Mewah, Taman Nuri, Taman Intan, Tanjung Seri, Taman Derga Jaya, Alor Setar, Suka Menanti, Taman Malaysia, Taman Golf, Taman Uda, Jalan Sultanah, Alor Semadom, Seberang Pumpong, Taman Wira, Gunong Sali, Kampung Berjaya, Telok Yan, Kampung Seberang Terus, Taman Rakyat Mergong, Kampung Batin, Alor Merah, Kota Darul Aman, Jalan Lumpur, Kampung Perak, Seberang Nyonya, Jalan Raja, Jalan Kolam, Pengkalan, Jalan Seberang Perak, Taman Bahagia, Kota Tanah, Kampung Piew, Jalan Pegawai, Kampung Telok, Bandar Simpang Kuala, Rumah Pangsa Simpang Kuala, Kampung Pegawai, Kanchut, Tambang Badak, Bakar Bata, Jalan Stesyen, Taman Bee Bee, Tongkang Yard, Alor Mengkudu, Alor Melintang, Titi Haji Idris, Tok Sibil, Alor Binjal, Tok Keling, Lahar Budi, Taman Saga, Taman Sultan Abdul Halim, Jalan Langgar, Kampung Tanjong Bendahara, Keriang Pulau, Selarong, Tandop, Kuala Kedah, Anak Bukit, Titi Gajah, Alor Ganu, Alor Madi, Kota Rentang, Permatang Kong, Kubang Raja, Padang Hang, Gunong, Kubang Tedoh, Taman Aman, Pekan Anak Bukit, Kampung Anak Bukit, Pantai Johor, Chegar, Sungai Baru, Mergong, Kubang Rotan, Kuar Jawa, Kubang Jawi, Kubang Jambu, Seberang Kota, Kampung Bahru, Pekan Kuala Kedah, Taman Sri Putra, Kampung Tengah, Kampung Balai, Kubang Panggas, Telok Chengai, Taman Seri Ampang, Taman Pelangi, Peremba, Taman Sultan Badlishah, Taman Malek, Pengkalan Kundor, Telok Kechai, Taman Sophia, Taman Bersatu, Telok Bagan, Kebun Pinang, Tebengau, Kampung Benua, Selarong Panjang, Permatang Ibus, Kuala Sala, Sala Kechil, Selarong Batang, Buloh Lima, Taman Impian, Kota Sarang Semut, Taman Cengkeh, Pendang, Tokai, Sri Pudak, Kepala Bukit, Kampung Penyarom, Kampung Rambai, Kubang Jelai, Pekan Tokai, Kampung Pulai, Alor Besar, Kobah, Tempoyak, Sebrang Pendang, Pekan Pendang, Bukit Raya, Banggol Besi, Guar Kepayang, Cherok Kudong, Manggol Petai, Paya Kelubi, Batu Manunggul, Sungai Tiang, Kubor Panjang, Kampung Perupok, Kampung China, Padang Durian, Pokok Assam, Kampung Belat, Paya Rawa, Kampung Bechah, Titi Akar, Sungai Tiang Blok B, Sungai Tiang Blok A, Kampung Mahawangsa Pendang, Sawa Kechil, Padang Pusing, Ayer Puteh, Bukit Jambol, Junun, Tanjong Setol, Bukit Genting, Pokok Tai, Paya Mak Inson, Paya Mengkuang, Jerai, Sungai Limau, Matang Buloh, Sungai Dedap, Gelam Tiga, Bukit Choras, Bukit Besar, Simpang Tiga Luar, Simpang Tiga, Selengkoh, Sungai Daun, Kabu Sepuloh, Sungai Kering, Sedaka, Ulu Sedaka, Padang Lumat, Batu Enam Belas, Kampung Titi Batu, Dulang Kechil, Dulang Besar, Guar Chempedak, Pondok Haji Majid, Taman Sri Wangsa, Pondok Haji Hussein, Titi Teras, Teroi, Titi Serong, Kuala Yan Kechil, Pekan Sungai Yan, Sungai Udang, Singkir Darat, Kampung Acheh, Lubok Buoy, Pekan Yan, Sungai Raga, Ruat, Singkir Laut, Gurun, Pekan Jeniang, Kampung Jeniang, Batu Sepuloh, Batu 9, Padang Lembu, Sungai Rotan, Pulau Chengai, Bongkok Gurun, Pekan Gurun, Pekan Baru Gurun, Kampung Gurun, Taman Seri Jerai, Ladang Jerai, Sungai Puntar, Sungai Tok Pawang, Pekan Bahru Bedong, Sik, Belantek, Kota Aur, Kampung Gulau, Kubang Kesom, Chepir, Kampung Chong, Bendang Man, Durian Burong, Charok Kit, Kampung Dusun, Pekan Sik, Kampung Sadu, Kampung Namek, Kampung Kemelong, Jeneri, Padang Chichak, Kampung Betong, Kota Bukit, Kuala Jeneri, Kampung Kalai, Kampung Kuala Bigia, Kampung Chemara, Kampung Bigia, Kampung Telui, Batu Lima, Charok Padang, Hujong Bandar, Kampung Bandar, Tupai, FELDA Telui Timor, Beris Jaya, Merbok, Bukit Selambau, Kuala Sin, Kampung Sungkap, Bukit Lembu, Taman Bandar Baru, Sungai Lalang, Taman Desa Aman, Bandar Laguna Merbok, Tasek Apong, Air Menideh, Jalan Badlishah, Taman Peruda, Taman Ria Utara, United Petani, Petani Para, Bukit Rusa, Pekan Bukit Selambau, Kampung Pokok Machang, Batu Belachan, Titi Panjang, Ambangan Height, Taman Ria Selatan, Tanjong Dawai, Bujang, Pekan Sabtu Merbok, Simpang Tiga Pasir, Pekan Merbok, Kampung Pasir, Kampung Huma, Batu Hampar, Pengkalan Bujang, Sungai Gelam, Sungai Jagong, Sungai Layar, Semeling Kanan, Semeling Kiri, Kampung Bedong, Taman Orkid, Taman Sri Tanjong, Bunga Raya, Sekolah Ibrahim, Sungai Petani, Pantai Merdeka, Bukit Kechik, Bukit Meriam, Sintok Bugis, Padang Salim, Kuala Muda, Haji Kudong, Kota Kuala Muda, Sungai Mas, Rantau Panjang, Pekan Tikam Batu, Kampung Simpor, Batu Lintang, Simpor Timor, Telok Wang, Kampung Berapit, Kampung Tikam Batu, Pekula, Padang Temusu, Pinang Tunggal, Bakar Arang, Taman Dahlia, Jalan Pengkalan, Kolam Air, Bandar, Simpang Tiga Pekan Lama, Peteri, Taman Sentosa, Taman Delima, Taman Arked, Taman Makmur, Sungai Pasir, Taman Nilam, Taman Sejati Indah, Taman Sri Wang, Taman Keladi, Sidam, Taman Mutiara, Pekan Lama, Padang Buloh, Kampung Sidam, Kampung Raja, Scarboro, Pengkalan Lebai Man, Taman Sutera, Seri Impian, Puteri Jaya, Kampung Sarukam, Pantai Prai, Taman Ria Jaya, Baling, Bayu, Kampung Batu Lapan, Tanjong Pari, Kampung Weng, Kampung Surau, Kampung Legong, Kampung Lalang, Kampung Luar, Bongor Mesjid, Bongor Sekolah, Kampung Haji Abbas, Rambong Baling, Batu 7 Jalan Kroh, Pekan Baling, Bukit Baling, Sebrang Baling, Dalam Wang, Pekan Pulai, Telok Teduri, Sera Mesjid, Telok Sera, Kampung Tiak, Bendang Padang, Kuala Kuang, Kampung Iboi, Kupang, Charok Salang, Kampung Asam Jawa, Charok Kelian, Charok Bemban, Gua Reban, Lanai, Mengkuang, Lubok Kabu, Kuala Pegang, Kampung Raja Kampung Landak, Pekan Kupang, Kuala Chenerai, Ketemba, Kampung Sadek, Bukit Terabak, Simpang Jerai, Ladang Sungai Tawar, Badenoch, Ulu Bakai, Pekan Malau, Badang, Kampung Sidim, Kuala Ketil, FELDA Teloi Kanan, Kampung Guar Chempedak, Padang Kulim, Pekan Baru Kuala Ketil, Pekan Lama Kuala Ketil, Taman Batu Pekaka, Batu Pekaka, Kampung Thye Seng, Kuala Kuli, Kampung Jawa, Padang Geh, Kuala Merah, Parit Panjang, Kampung Tembak, Paya Besar, Kuala Samak, Binjol Dalam, Kampung Tawar, Pekan Tawar, Binjal Luar, Ladang Malakoff, Kejai, Kampung Bakai, Pelam, Padang Serai, Merbau Pulas, Guar Lobak, Sidam Kanan, Kuala Sedim, Pekan Merbau Pulas, Kampung Jemerli, Bagan Sena, Sungai Karangan, Padang Meiha, Ladang Padang Meiha, Batu Puteh, Bukit Sedim, Kampung Bikan, Kampung Jangkang, Sungai Kob, Kampung Sungai Ular, Kulim High Tech, Padang China, Taman Perak, Taman Senangin, Kampung Baru, Jalan Serdang, Lunas, Henrietta, Victoria, Naga Lilit, Sungai Seluang, Batu Enam, Kampung Baru Lunas, Pekan Lunas, Taman Sejahtera, Taman Lobak, Kampung Keladi, Taman Selasih, Simpang Tiga Keladi, Kelang Sago, Bandar Putra, Taman Angsana, Taman Semarak, Pekan Padang Serai, Jalan Baling, Jalan Lunas, Kulim-Bandar Baharu, Kulim, Kampung Tebuan, Ulu Mahang, Pekan Mahang, Ladang Sungai Dingin, FELDA Gunong Bongsu, Karangan, Terap, Ladang Sungai Ular, Ladang Anak Kulim, Jalan Tunku Bendahara, Taman Kenari, Taman Tunku Putra, Taman Seri Kulim, Pekan Kulim, Jalan Tunku Putra, Jalan Ibrahim, Bukit Awi, Ayer Merah, Taman Anggerik, Junjong, Padang Penyangga, Bandar Baharu, Sungai Batu, Sungai Taka, Sungai Tengas, Selama, Kampung Ee Guan, Pekan Serdang, Batu 16, Relau, Sungai Kechil Illir, Pekan Lubok Buntar, Kerat Telunjok, Sungai Kechil Ulu, Parit Nibong, Permatang Pasir, Pengkalan Kubor, Kampung Ketil, Kampung Tebing, Kampung Geting, Simpangan, Tujoh, Telaga Bata, Bunohan, Jubakar Darat, Kampung Bendang Pak Yong, Kampung Telok Jering, Kedai Geting, Kelaboran, Jubakar Pantai, Dalam Rhu, Bandar Tumpat, Tanjong Kuala, Kampung Besut, Kampung Kelong, Kampung Berangan, Kampung Padang Tembesu, Terbak, Pulau Beluru, Mak Neralang, Sungai Pinang, Kok Keli, Pasir Pekan, Kampung Bendang Pulau, Kampung Laut, Kok Pasir, Morak, Palekbang, Pasir Pekan Hilir, Paloh, Kampung Bharu Sungai, Kutan, Alor Pasir, Kampung Dalam Kota Kubang Labu, Wakaf Bharu, Kampung Pasir Puteh, Cherang Melintang, Kampung Tok Oh, Kampung Periok, Bunut Sarang Burong, Kebakat, Chenderong Batu, Kampung Kubang Batang, Chabang Empat, Kampung Jal Besar, Jal Kechil, Wakaf Delima, Kampung Belukar, Wakaf Bharu Kedai, Pengkalan Chepa, Kijang, Pulau Kundor, Semut Api, Kedai Buloh, Banggol, Tikat, Kampung Penambang, Chempaka, Sabak, Tebing Tinggi, Telok Kitang, Kampung Pulau Panjang, Tanjong Baharu, Che Deris, Baung, Pengkalan Nangka, Simpang Tiga Pengkalan Chepa, Pulau Gajah, Panchor, Taman Kemumin, Tapang, Kemumin, Sering, Pasir Kasar, Pulau Belanga, Tok Ku, Padang Tembak, Panji, Pasir Tok Kambing, Kota Bharu, Tanjong Mas, Wakaf Mek Zainab, Tanjong Chat, Sungai Keladi, Khatib Ali, Cherang, Kampung Bayam, Langgar, Paya Bemban, Kota Lama, Kelochor, Kebun Sultan, Merbau, Atas Banggol, Jalan Pejabat Pos Lama, Padang Garong, Islah Lama, Kubor Kuda, Bunut Payong, Kg Sireh Bawah Lembah, Wakaf Siku, Jalan Raja Dewa, Telipot, Bunut Payong Hilir, Pintu Geng, Kota Utara, Lundang, Kampung Wakaf Che Yeh, Pasir Mas, Tendong, Pangkal Kala, Bechah Semak, Teliar, Bechah Menerong, Bunut Susu, Bechah Durian, Padang Embon, Kampung Paloh, Hutan Chengal, Kampung Hutan Pasir, Kedondong, Kampung Chat, Pengkalan Pasir, Sakar, Kubang Badak, Kampung Bharu, Kampung Dangar, Bandar Pasir Mas, Slow Machang, Kasa, Meranti, Banggol Chicha, Bakong, Meranti Kechil, Pohon Buloh, Pohon Tanjong, Kampung Siram, Banggol Setol, Tok Sangkut, Tasek Berangan, Chetok, Tanjong Redang, Lemal, Kelar, Kangkong, Gelam, Rasal, Galok, Bendang Pauh, Jabo, Bechah Kelubi, Kubang Gendang, Gual Periok, Lubok Gong, Kedai Gual Periok, Gual Sitok, Pekan Rantau Panjang, Kedai Lama, Banggol Kulim, Bakat, Kubang Kual, Bukit Tandak, Kuala Itek, Lubok Setol, Kampung Rahmat, Apam Putra, Lubok Tapah, Nibong, Pengkalan Machang, Kampung Bujok, Repek, Lati, Chicha Tinggi, Cherang Hangus, Taman, Batu Karang, Bukit Tuku, Baroh Pial, Chandan, Kubang Kerian, Salor, Wakaf Zain, Kota Selatan, Pendek, Larak, Mulong, Telok Kandis, Kampung Kubang Rawa, Seberang Pasir Mas, Dewan, Beta Hilir, Lubok Jambu, Kampung Kor, Beta Hulu, Kedai Piah, Pasir Tumboh, Padang Enggang, Pasir Hor, Tiong, Kampung Parit, Kampung Terusan, Guntong, Lating, Nilam Baru, Gong Dermin, Demit, Wakaf Tanjong, Mentuan, Kenali, Pulong, Kampung Chicha, Kampung Wakaf Stan, Binjai, Lubok Pukol, Banggu, Mentera, Huda, Bachok, Tawang, Senak, Wakaf Aik, Beris Gajah Mati, Anak Tembesu, Kampung Tok Jawa, Telok Mesira, Pauh Sembilan, Tok Belian, Tanjong Jering, Beris, Tanjong Pauh, Chap, Bukit Marak, Paya Teratai, Bekelam, Pantai Irama, Kubang Golok, Perupok, Kampung Sungai, Pantai Damat, Kampung Kemudi, Kampung Nipah, Kuau, Badak, Melawi, Kampung Sungai Dua, Tangok, Rusa, Telong, Kandis, Jelawat, Kampung Redang, Beris Lalang, Jelawat Tengah, Kampung Bator, Kuchelong, Kedai Pauh Lima, Teratak Pulai, Seneng, Telaga Ara, Keting, Alor Bakat, Mahligai, Pak Badol, Kolam, Kubang Telaga, Kampung Bakong, Ketereh, Melor, Peringat, Badak Mati, Bechah Keranji, Padang Kala, Padang Raja, Melor Lama, Tegayong, Pangkal Pisang, Kadok, Lachang, Buloh Poh, Berangan, Perol, Kampung Talang, Dusun Rendah, But Chengal, Kok Lanas, Kampung Gondang, Padang Tengah, Padang Lembek, Hutan Pasir, Kampung Guntong, Pangkal Kalong, Kedai Kok Lanas, Setek, Kampung Batu Tinggi, Kampung Sokor, Bukit Panau, Kampung Belimbing, Padang Siam, Kelewek, Kampung Sat, Pondok, Tanah Merah Pekan, Tepi Sungai, Batu Hitam, Banggol Kemunting, Manal, Gual Ipoh, Kuala Paku, Bechah Laut, Pekan Gual Ipoh, Ulu Kusial, Bukit Durian, Terasil, Kongsi Lima, Kerilla, Kuala Tiga, Blok Sokor, Kg Peralla, Tok Che Dol, Kemahang, FELDA Kemahang 1, FELDA Kemahang 3, FELDA Kemahang 2, Bukit Mas, Bukit Gading, Bendang Nyior, Batang Merbau, Pasir Puteh, Selising, Kedai Menanti, Danan, Bukit Merbau, Tasik Pauh, Padang Pak Omar, Banir Belikong, Bukit Abal, Alor Geliong, Bukit Bidang, Kampung Seligi, Limbongan, Jelor, Kampung Nara, Kampung Merkang, Padang Pak Amat, Panggong, Permatang Sungkai, Cherang Tuli, Saring, Gong Serapat, Bandar Pasir Puteh, Dalam Kemunting, Semerak, Tok Bali, Kampung Lembah, Gong Kulim, Bukit Tanah, Gong Manok, Pekan Cherang Ruku, Gong Tapang, Pulau Lima, Sungai Petai, Gaal, Temila, Jeram, Telipok, Telosan, Gong Garu, Gong Datok, Bukit Yong, Gong Nangka, Bukit Awang, Machang, Pulai Chondong, Alor Melaka, Merbau Chondong, Kedai Pulai Chondong, Pangkal Gong, Kerawang, Bagan, Kampung Tok Bok, Joh, Labok, Kampung Binjai, Temangan, Simpul Berlubang, Kelaweh, Pak Roman, Pangkal Meleret, Paloh Rawa, Batu 30, Kampung Pauh, Bandar Temangan, Kampung Kerilla, Pangkal Chuit, Kemuning, Sungai Hala, Kweng Hitam, Pangkal Changgong, Bandar Lama, Bandar Bharu, Bukit Tiu, Ulu Sat, Banggol Judah, Bakar, Kampung Pek, Kampung Bunut, Jeli, Bukit Bunga, Jakar, Jedok Tua, Lalang Pepuyu, Batu Gajah, Asahan, Lawang, Gual Jedok, Air Canal, Air Lanas, Kalai, Bandar Jeli, Gemang, Legeh, Sungai Satan, Berdang, Pos Sungai Rual, Kedai Air Lanas, Kuala Balah, Batu Melintang, Pendok, Sungai Long, Lubok Bongor, Kubor Datu, Jerimbong, Kedai Kuala Balah, Kampung Bharu Tg. Abd. Rahman Putra, Kuala Krai, Mengkebang, Pasir Kelang, Kuala Nal, Bukit Sireh, Batu Jong, Keroh, Pasir Gajah, Telekong, Sungai Durian, Chenulang, R.K.T. Mengkebang, R.P.T. Sungai Pas, Guchil, Ladang Taku, Kampung Bharu Guchil Utara, Sri Guchil, Kampung Bharu Guchil Tengah, Kampung Bharu Guchil Selatan, Bandar Kuala Krai, Kg Hamzah, RKT Bahagia, Kenor, Kuala Pahi, Pahi, Manek Urai, Temalir, Sungai Perial, Manek Urai Lama, Manek Urai Baru, Sungai Sok, Chuchoh Puteri, Lata Rek, Manjor, Laloh, Dabong, Kandek, Kuala Gris, Jelawang, Kemubu, Bintang, Bukit Abu, Temiang, Kampung Sungai Mel, Pemberian, Olak Jeram, Biak, Gua Musang, Nenggiri, Tohoi, Pos Simpor, Sungai Puian, Sungai Jenera, Sungai Wias, Jerek, Bertam Baru, Ladang SEDC, Jeram Tekoh, Sungai Asap, Renok, Kuala Sungai, Bertam Lama, Star, Perasu, Serian, Meranto, KESEDAR Limau Kasturi, Limau Kasturi, FELDA Sungai Chiku 3, Pasir Linggi, KESEDAR Paloh, KESEDAR Sungai Chalil, Lebir, KESEDAR Paloh 3, Aring, FELDA Sungai Chiku 1, FELDA Sungai Chiku 7, FELDA Sungai Chiku 2, KESEDAR Paloh 2, Galas, Sungai Betis, Lojing, Sungai Ber, Belatim, Balar, Bihai, Hau, Bandar Lama Gua Musang, Bandar Baru Gua Musang, Kampung Batu Papan, Lepan Tupai, Sungai Terah, Blau, Kuala Besut, Pulau Perhentian, Seberang Barat, Nail, Seberang Barat Luar, Tok Saboh, Kampung Nangka, Bukit Puteri, Air Terjun, Kota Putera, Pekan Seberang Kastam, Pengkalan Nyireh, Kampung Raja Utara, Kampung Raja Selatan, Keluang, Batu Tumbuh, Amir, Gong Bayur, Tembila, Beting Lintang, Alur Lintang, Gelam Mas, Jertih, Alur Lintah, Tok Raja, Bukit Kenak, Gong Nering, Simpang Tiga Jertih, Bandar Jertih, Seberang Jertih, Padang Luas, Padang Landak, Nyiur Tujuh, Gong Gucil, Pelagat, Hulu Besut, Cerang Meliling, Alur Keladi, Darau, Pasir Akar, Padang Bual, Bukit Payung, Felda Tenang, Kampung La, Kayu Kelat, Kuala Kubang, Apal, Kerandang, Renek, Tempinis, Bukit Jeruk, Tok Dor, Permaisuri, Gong Batu, Fikri, Mangkuk, Guntung Dalam, Guntung Luar, Putera Jaya, Banggul, Penarik, Bari, Telaga Papan, Merang, Rhu Sepuluh, Saujana, Langkap, Gong Terap, Bukit Putera, Chalok Barat, Pengkalan Merbau, Sungai Bari, Jelapang, Sungai Tong, Pelung, Bukit Munduk, Chalok Kedai, Batu Rakit, Pulau Redang, Mengabang Lekar, Darat Batu Rakit, Maras, Bukit Wan, Bukit Cempaka, Padang Kemunting, Wakaf Tengah, Mengabang Teliput, Mengabang Telung, Kuala Nerus, Tepuh, FELDA Belara, Gemuruh, Bukit Guntung, Padang Air, Tok Jiring, Padang Nanas, Taman Perumahan Gong Badak, Lerek, Gong Datuk, Wakaf Tembesu, Buluh Gading, Bukit Petiti, Banggul Peradung, Kebur Besar, Kebur Air, Petai Bubus, Teluk Pasu, Tanjung Bunut, Kesum, Seberang Takir, Tok Jembal, Bukit Tok Beng, Kampung Baru Seberang Takir, Seberang Takir Pantai, Teluk Ketapang, Telaga Daing, Telaga Batin, Bukit Tunggal, Pak Katak, Bukit Tumbuh, Duyung, Pulau Ketam, Gong Kijang, Kuala Terengganu, Wakaf Mempelam, Pulau Rusa, Paluh, Losong Datok Amar, Losong Penglima Perang, Losong Haji Mat Shafie, Seberang Baruh, Wakaf Beruas, Merbau Patah, Durian Burung, Sungai Rengas, Kuala Bekah, Cabang Tiga, Hiliran Masjid, Losong Masjid, Pulau Kambing, Kampung Cina, Paya Bunga, Tanjung, Ladang, Tekukur, Batas Baru, Gong Kapas, Pasir Panjang, Bukit Bayas, Gong Gemia, Batu Buruk, Pantai Batu Buruk, Nibung, Gong Tok Nasek, Bukit Depu, Kuala Ibai, Chendering Pantai, Chendering, Taman Permint Jaya, Mengabang Tengah, Kenanga, Tok Adis, Marang, Alur Limbat, Pulau Manis, Rawai, Tasik, Banggul Tok Ku, Beladau Selat, Kepung, Padang Midin, Gelugur Kedai, Tebakang, Atas Tol, Paya Resak, Kedai Buluh, Surau Haji Daud, Undang, Pekan Bukit Payung, Mak Kemas, Surau Panjang, Ru Rendang, Rusila, Medan Jaya, Sentul Patah, Kijing, Bandar Marang, Seberang Marang, Bukit Gasing, Batangan, Ru Muda, Pulau Kerengga, Kelulut, Pengkalan Berangan, Sungai Serai, Binjai Rendah, Cerang China, Wakaf Tapai, Jerung Surau, Bukit Parit, Kubu, Mercang, Pasir Putih, Jambu Bongkok, Gong Balai, Padang Mengkuang, Durian Guling, Bukit Jejulung, Hulu Terengganu, Telemung, Basung, Teris, Kuala Ping, Payang Kayu, Tengkawang, Kuala Telemung, Matang, Kuala Dura, Dusun, Bukit Gemuruh, Sekayu, Tapah, Ceting, Kuala Jeneris, Manir, Kedai Manir, Beladau Kolam, Durian Emas, Pulau Bahagia, Pujuk, Teluk Menara, Kuala Berang, Getang, Pasir Tinggi, Sungai Ular, Tanggul, Bandar Kuala Berang, Bukit Tok Bat, Telaga, Tanjung Putat, Kampung Buluh, Tapu, Tajin, Ajil, Bukit Perah, Bukit Apit, Tok Randok, Pengkalan Ajal, Bukit Diman, Bukit Bading, Landas, Peruh, Menerung, Lubuk Periuk, Pekan Ajil, FELDA Tersat, FELDA Jerangau Barat, Pereh, Betung, FELDA Mengkawang, Dungun, Bukit Besi, FELDA Jerangau, Nerang, Tepus, Dendang, Al-Muktafi Billah Shah, Kuala Jengai, Pasir Raja, Shukor, Jongok Batu, Lintang, Minda, Rantau Abang, Pinang, Padang Pulut, Delung, Kuala Abang, Seberang Pintasan, Pulau Serai, Tok Kah, Che Lijah, Gong Pasir, Balai Besar, Taman Permint Indah, Sura, Sungai Penaga, Sungai Buaya, Bukit Catak, Alur Tembesu, Kampung Molek, Tanah Lot, Teluk Lipat, Sura Gate, Sura Utara, Padang Jambu, Sura Tengah, Paka, Kampung Baru Batu Lima, Durian Mentangau, Kampung Nyiur, Tebing Tembah, Kampung Masjid, Limbung, Cacar, FELDA Kertih 2, FELDA Kertih 1, Santung, FELDA Kertih 4, Cacar Baru, FELDA Kertih 3, Kemaman, Kemasik, Batu Putih, FELDA Kertih 6, Kampung Ranggon, Kuala Kertih, Pekan Kertih, Pekan Air Jernih, FELDA Kertih 5, Chabang, Tok Kaya, Rantau Petronas, Kijal, Padang Kubu, Seri Bandi, Ibok, Bukit Anak Dara, Pekan Kijal, Teluk Kalung, Bukit Kuang, Payoh, Beris Meraga, Cukai, Bakau Tinggi, Kampung Tuan, Gong Limau, Gong Pauh, Kubang Kurus, Kuala Kemaman, Geliga, Paya Berenjut, Geliga Besar, Air Putih, Mak Chili, Bukit Mentok, Pasir Minal, Seberang Tayur, Dadung, Bandar Cerul, Bandar Baru Cenih, Sungai Pergam, FELDA Neram 1, Hulu Jabur, FELDA Neram 2, Penaga, Pulau Mertajam, Pasir Gebu, Permatang Janggus, Guar Kepah, Permatang Tiga Ringgit, Lahar Kepar, Bertam, Padang Benggali, Permatang Berah, Permatang Rambai, Permatang Sintok, Permatang Pak Elong, Permatang Bertam, Jalan Kedah, Pongsu Seribu, Bumbung Lima, Paya Keladi, Bertam Indah, Kampong To'Bedu, Permatang Langsat, Kampong Baharu, Kampong Selamat Utara, Kubang Menerong, Kampong Selamat Selatan, Tasek Gelugor, Permatang Berangan, Ara Rendang, Pokok Machang, Pokok Tampang, Jarak, Padang Chempedak, Ara Kuda, Permatang Kerai, Sungai Dua, Pajak Song, Simpang Ampat, Permatang To'Jaya, Kampong Telok, Taman Desa Murni, Kampong Setol, Lahar Yooi, Telok Ayer Tawar, Permatang Binjai, Pekan Darat, Taman Senangan, Mata Kuching, Jalan Masjid, Taman Perkasa, Sungai Puyu, Bagan Ajam, Permatang Tengah, Kampong Bahru, Bagan Lalang, Taman Merbau, Taman Dedap, Taman Bunga Tanjung, Bagan Jermal, Kubang Buaya, Kampong Gajah, Jalan Mengkuang, Kampong Simpa, Mak Mandin, Taman Sukaria, Taman Melor, Taman Cantik, Bagan Dalam, Bagan Luar, Telaga Ayer, Taman Bagan, Kampong Acham, Sekolah St. Marks, Jalan Assumption, Permatang Pauh, Seberang Jaya, Jalan Sembilang, Seberang Jaya II, Kampong Pertama, Kampong Belah Dua, Seberang Jaya I, Jalan Bahru, Jalan Tuna, Taman Tun Hussien Onn, Sama Gagah, Permatang Ara, Bukit Indra Muda, Kampong Pelet, Kubang Semang, Tanah Liat Mukim 8, Kampong Cross Street 2, Penanti, Guar Perahu, Kuala Mengkuang, Sungai Lembu, Kubang Ulu, Sungai Semambu, Tanah Liat Mukim 9, Berapit Road, Bukit Mertajam, Berapit, Kampong Aston, Bukit Noning, Taman Bukit Ria, Jalan Berjaya, Taman Alma, Mutiara Indah, Taman Tenang, Machang Bubuk, To' Kun, Machang Bubok, Bukit Teh, Alma, Taman Seri Kijang, Bukit Minyak, Permatang Tinggi, Taman Jambu, Taman Seri Janggus, Taman Alma Jaya, Kampong Cross Street 1, Station Road, High School, Bukit Kechil, Desa Damai, Taman Keenways, Taman Binjai, Batu Kawan, Perai, Taman Indrawasih, Taman Chai Leng, Taman Perai, Taman Supreme, Taman Kimsar, Bukit Tengah, Kampong Jawa, Kebun Sireh, Kuala Juru, Juru, Taman Perwira, Taman Sejati, Taman Sentul Jaya, Bukit Tambun, Pulau Aman, Taman Merak, Ladang Valdor, Perkampungan Valdor, Rumah Murah Valdor, Nibong Tebal, Jawi, Changkat, Perkampungan Jawi, Taman Desa Jawi, Ladang Caledonia, Ladang Byram, Ladang Victoria, Jalan Bukit Panchor, Taman Helang Jaya, Sungai Bakap, Puteri Gunong, Tasek Junjong, Sungai Duri, Ladang Sempah, Sungai Kechil, Kampung Besar, Sungai Acheh, Sungai Setar, Sungai Bakau, Tanjong Berembang, Permatang To' Mahat, Taman Transkrian, Bukit Bendera, Tanjong Bunga, Batu Feringgi, Jalan Vale Of Tempe, Kampong Tanjong Bunga, Seaview Park, Jalan Gajah, Tanjong Tokong, Sungai Kelian, Stesyen Bawah, Jalan Lintang, Hye Keat Estate, Reservoir Gardens, Race Course, Taman Sempadan, Kebun Bunga, Fettes Park, Ladang Hong Seng, Taman Bunga, Quarry Drive, Jalan Batu Gantong, Rumah Pangsa, Rifle Range Road, Rifle Range, Pulau Tikus, Pantai Molek, Jalan Punchak Erskine, Taman Gottlieb, College Avenue, Bangkok Lane, Peel Avenue, Ayer Rajah, Barrack Road, Tanjong, Padang Kota, Northam Road, Pykett Avenue, Rangoon Road, Nagore Road, Wellesley School, Farquhar Street, Lorong Argus, Muntri Street, Kampong Malabar, Lorong Seck Chuan, Lorong Pasar, Esplanade, Leboh Pasar, Leboh Ah Quee, Pengkalan Kota, Leboh Presgrave, Jalan Magazine, Jalan Prangin, Leboh Victoria, Pengkalan Weld, Gat Leboh Noordin, Jalan C.Y. Choy, Macallum Street, Leboh Cecil, Komtar, Dickens Street, Leboh Cintra, Kampong Kolam, Leboh Acheh, Leboh Melayu, Hong Kong Street, Madras Lane, Jalan Timah, Jalan Lines, Jalan Dato' Keramat, Irving Road, Jalan Pahang, Jalan Kim Bian Aik, Jelutong, Datok Keramat, Jalan York, Sekolah Free, Taman Sekolah Free, Taman Abidin, Jalan Perak, Caunter Hall, City Stadium, Kampong Makam, Jalan Kajang, Sungai Pinang Road, City Infirmary, Jalan Trusan, West Jelutong, Bakau Street, East Jelutong, Jalan Madrasah, Bukit Dumbar, Batu Lancang, Lilitan Hargreaves, Chemor Lane, Lorong Parit Buntar, Jelutong Road, Panchor Road, Batu Lanchang, Solok Batu Lanchang, Jalan Penaga, Tingkat Jelutong, Desa Green, Bukit Gelugor, Seri Delima, Kampong Hijau, Island Park, Lintang Delima, Lorong Delima, Taman Tun Sardon, Sungai Gelugor, Air Itam, Ayer Itam, Happy Valley, Jalan Kampong Pisang, Kampong Melayu, Jalan Chor Sin Kheng, Thean Teik, Zoo Road, Jalan Shaik Madar, Cheeseman Road, Paya Terubong, Paya Terubong Mukim 14, Sungai Dondang, Paya Terubong Mukim 13, Taman Paya Terubong, Desa Baiduri, Desa Intan, Semarak Api 1, Jln Semarak Api, Bukit Awana, Terubong Jaya, Bayan Baru, Batu Uban, Minden Heights, Universiti Sains, Bukit Gambir, Taman Jubilee, Taman Pekaka, Pantai Jerejak, Taman Seri Nibong, Pintasan Bahagia, Jalan Mahsuri, Bandar Bayan Baru, Jalan Tengah, Lebuh Mahsuri, Batu Maung, Kampong Sungai Ara, Taman Desa Ara, Sungai Tiram, Sungai Kluang, Kampong Naran, Permatang Damar Laut, Taman Sri Bayan, Taman Bukit Gedung, Teluk Tempoyak, Balik Pulau, Bayan Lepas, Taman Sungai Ara, Kampong Seronok, Telok Kumbar, Pasir Belanda, Gertak Sanggul, Pulau Betong, Sungai Kongsi, Pondok Upeh, Titi Tras, Sungai Burong, Ginting, Telok Bahang, Telok Awak, Pantai Acheh, Kuala Sungai Pinang, Sungai Rusa, Pengkalan Hulu, Kuak Hulu, Ayer Panas, Kuak Luar, Pekan Kroh, Kampong Selarong, Tasek, Klian Intan, Kampong Pahit, Kampong Lalang, Kampong Plang, Temengor, Krunei, Pekan Grik Barat, Batu Dua, Pekan Grik Timor, Grik Utara, Kuala Rui, Bersia, Rancangan FELDA Bersia, Kampong Bongor, Banun, Pos Kemar, Lenggong, Kenering, Kenering Utara, Tawai, Ulu Kenderong, Padang Kunyit, Kampong Ayer Panas, Kampong Padang, Kampong Ganda, Sungai Dala, Belum Baharu, FELDA Papulut, Lawin, FELDA Lawin Selatan, Kampong Sawa, Ayer Kala, Selat Pagar, Sumpitan, Padang Gerus, Bukit Sapi, Kota Tampan, Kampong Gelok, Kampong Lenggong, Kampong Sira, Bukit Raja, Bukit Balai, Kampong Telok Batu, Kampong Temelong, Kampong Chepor, Kampong Luat, Banggol Belimbing, Lubok Kawah, Kampong Raban, Kuak, Kampong Beng, Larut, Ulu Selama, Ulu Selama Barat, Banggol Jas, Sungai Rambutan, Sungai Bedarah, Kampong Sungai Seputeh, Kampong Garok, Sungai Bayor, Ulu Mengkuang, Rantau Panjang Utara, Pekan Selama, Selama Utara, Sungai Terap, Bukit Kelian, Kubu Gajah, Sungai Dendang, Sungai Malau, Ladang Holyrood, Bagan Baharu, FELDA Ijok, Ulu Ijok Timor, Kampong Bendang Luas, Redang Panjang, Pantai Besar, Sungai Ara, Kampong Gudang, Batu Dua Puluh, Jelai, Relang, Kampong Ayer Hitam, Batu Kurau, Ulu Sepetang, Sungai Pulau, Changkat Perah, Kampong Repoh, Sungai Akar, Kampong Titi Kasai, Changkat Lobak, Bukit Bertam, Kampong Perak Tengah, Kampong Sempeneh, Kampong Anak Kurau, Changkat Larah, Taman Rakyat, Parit Buntar, Parit Sungai Betul, Sungai Labu, Sungai Megat Aris, Sungai Kota, Kedai Empat, Sungai Star, Kampong Perak, Kampong Kedah, Seri Tenggara, Taman Kerian, Tebok Haji Musa, Parit Tok Ngah, Kuala Kurau, Tanjong Piandang, Piandang Indah, Parit Sungai Burong, Parit Tok Hin, Sungai Baharu, Batu 14, Coast Road, Jalan Bawah, Parit Abas, Kurau Indah, Siakap Road, Parit Telok Pial, Parit Haji Wahab, Parit Haji Abd. Rahman, Parit Haji Ali, Bagan Serai, Alor Pongsu, Simpang Lima, Ladang Tali Ayer, Jalan Baharu, Parit Haji Amin, Kedai Dua, Pandak Puteh, Ladang Chersonese, Ladang Gula, Sungai Dungun, Ladang Lian Seng, Jin Seng, Matang Gerdu, Sungai Bogak, Matang Jelutong, Parit Simpang Lima, Gunong Semanggol, Batu 6 Bukit Merah, Bukit Merah, Pondok Tanjong Barat, Kampong Selamat, Kampong Tua, Railway Line, Parit Haji Taib, Mesjid Tinggi, Kota Bandung, Main Road Bagan Serai, Selinsing, Jalan Siakap, Kuala Gula, Parit Haji Tahir, Parit Gabis, Telok Medan, Sungai Gedong, Simpang Ampat Semanggol, Parit 3 Selinsing, Jalan Gula, Kampong Dew, Bukit Putus, Bukit Gantang, Kuala Sepetang, Kurnia Jaya, Palma, Jebong, Kuala Sapetang, Kampong Menteri, Jalan Mangala, Simpang Halt, Sungai Mati, Matang Gelugor, Kampong Jaha, Bendang Siam, Changkat Ibol, Changkat Jering, Larut Tin, Kawasan J.K.R, Jalan Simpang, Simpang Lama, Ayer Kuning, Kampong Cheh, Trong, Kuala Trong, Trong Barat, Kampong Tebok Trong, Temelok, Pasir Hitam Trong, Sungai Tinggi, Sungai Che Rahmat, Permatang Raja, Padang Gajah, Ayer Terjun, Bukit Gantang Selatan, Taiping, Kamunting, Sungai Relong, Expo, Kamunting Baru, Kampong Pinang Utara, Kampong Pinang Timor, Kampong Pinang Selatan, Kamunting Road, Bukit Jana, Waterfall Road, Kampong Aman, Sekolah, Jalan Raja Muda, Pasar, Sungai Tupai, Simpang Road, Kota Road, Market Street, Theatre Road, Tupai Lane, Coronation Road, Birch Village, Eastern Road, Museum, Aulong, Assam Kumbang, Station, Aulong Timor, Aulong Tengah, Aulong Barat, Aulong Selatan, Aulong Lama, Kampong Boyan, Taman Sening, Taman Marisa, Pengkalan Aor, Simpang Baru, Padang Rengas, Chenderoh, Jenalik, Empangan Chenderoh, Sauk, Sauk Utara, Kampong Seterus, Bendang Selinsing, Chegar Galah, Kampong Chuar, Kati, Berala, Lubok Chapin, Changkat Jambu, Liman Kati, Beluru, Kampong Jamuan, Kota Lama Kiri, Lubok Merbau, Kampong Laneh, Kroh Hilir, Padang Rengas Utara, Kampong Jaya, Kampong Buaya, Kampong Paya, Padang Assam, Kampong Rambong, Kampong Tanah Merah, Kampong Station, Kampong Basong, Sungai Siput, Kampong Kandang Hulu, Kampong Batang Kulim, Salak North, Kampong Enggor, Karai Luar, Pekan Karai, Kampong Karai, Kampong Jawang, Changkat Salak, Salak Timor, Kamuning Barat, Kamuning Timor, Kampong Temin, Sungai Pelus, Trosor, Kampong Mor, LKTP Lasah, Ladang Elphil, Rancangan Belia Khas Perlop, Chior Lasah, Chenein, Pos Piah, Pos Perwor, Pos Legap, Pos Kuala Mu, Jalong, Jalong Timor, Jalong Barat, Lintang Road Barat, Kampong Bahagia, Rimba Panjang Utara, Kampong Muhibbah, Main Road, Mahkamah, Sungai Buloh Selatan, Sungai Pelang, Tambun, Manjoi, Pekan Chemor, Chemor Indah, Kelabang, Kampong Chepor Dalam, Kampong Ulu Chepor, Meru Raya, Meru, Taman Jati, Kampong Sungai Kati, Kampong Datok Ahmad Said Tambahan 2 Selatan, Kampong Datok Ahmad Said Tambahan 2 Tengah, Tun Terang, Kampong Sungai Tapah, Kampong Seberang Manjoi, Kampong Tengku Hussein, Taman Keledang Jaya, Germuda, Hulu Kinta, Kanthan, Kuang, Kampong Ulu Chemor, Kampong Chik Zainal, Tanah Hitam, Changkat Kinding, Hospital Bahagia, Tanjong Rambutan, Tanjong Rambutan Utara, Tanjong Rambutan Barat, Kawasan Polis Hutan, Kampung Tersusun Batu 8, Bandar Baru Putra, Pakatan Jaya, Taman Perpaduan, Bandar Baru Sunway, Kampong Tersusun Batu 5, Jalan Tambun, Ipoh Timor, Canning, Taman Ipoh Timor, Taman Ipoh Selatan, Taman Wah Keong, Simee Barat, Simee Timor, Taman Ipoh, Taman Ipoh Barat, Canning Garden Barat, Canning Garden Timor, Lumba Kuda, Taman Cempaka, Desa Cempaka, Jalan Dato Maharaja Lela, Jalan Sultan Yusof, Jalan Tun Perak, Sungai Kinta, Tebing Sungai Kinta, Kampong Paloh, Kuala Pari Hilir, Kampong Seri Kinta, Pengkalan Barat, Pengkalan Gate, Pengkalan Pegoh, Pasir Pinji, Jalan Bendahara, Kampar Road, Housing Trust, Pasir Pinji Utara, Pasir Pinji Selatan, Pinji Lane Utara, Pasir Puteh Utara, Pasir Puteh Baru, Pinji Lane Selatan, Pasir Puteh Selatan, Taman Pengkalan Jaya, Ipoh Barat, Bercham, Bercham Timor, Kampong Bercham, Dermawan Utara, Bercham Selatan, Tasek Dermawan, Kampong Tawas Utara, Kampong Tawas, Kepayang, Taman Che Wan, Gurap, Gunong Lang, Kepayang Mesjid, Star Park, Fair Park, Kampong Pisang, Jalan Bijih Timah, Jalan Datuk Onn Jaafar, Waller Court, Green Town, Jalan Raja Ekram, Jalan C.M. Yusof, Buntong, Taman Lim, Jalan Tun Abdul Razak, Jalan Silibin, Jalan Klian Intan, Kampong Baru Buntong, Jalan Sungai Pari, Falim, Kampong Kacang Puteh, Desa Rishah, Jelapang Timor, Jelapang Utara, Jelapang Selatan, Jelapang Barat, Silibin, Taman Pertama, Taman Rishah, Jelapang Tengah, Bukit Kledang, Papan, Menglembu, Bandar Baru Menglembu, Menglembu Lama, Awana, Menglembu Barat, Menglembu Selatan, Bukit Merah Timor, Bukit Merah Barat, Bukit Merah Tengah, Bukit Merah Barat Daya, Bukit Merah Selatan, Lahat, Tronoh, Gunong Hijau, Jalan Lahat, Jalan Siputeh, Pekan Pusing, Batu Gajah Utara, Batu Gajah Selatan, Penempatan India, Bemban, Nalla, Kampong Bali, Kuala Kangsar, Bukit Chandan, Kampong Talang, Jalan Dato Sagor, Jalan Kangsar, Kampong Pajak Potong, Bukit Resident, Jalan Datoh, Kampong Sayong Lembah, Bendang Kering, Menora, Senggang, Seberang Manong, Bekor, Manong, Taman Bunga Raya, Talang Hulu, Bendang Panjang, Kampong Mesjid, Kampong Ketior, Ulu Kenas, Lempor, Kampong Jeliang, Kampong Semat, Ulu Piol, Beruas, Pengkalan Baharu, Kampong Pintu Gerbang, Paya Ara, Bruas, Bruas Timor, Bruas Barat, Ladang Bruas, Ulu Bruas, Kampong Baharu Sungai Batu, Ladang Huntly, Kampong Kota, Kampong Tengah, Gelong Gajah, Kampong Banjar, Kampong Jering New Village, Jalan Ayer Tawar, Changkat Chermin, Paya Nibong, Pantai Remis, Taman Bintang, Kampong Indah, Kampong Sungai Batu, Ladang Segari, Segari, Changkat Keruing, Ladang Cashwood, Kampong Merbau, Kampong Raja Hitam, Taman Sri Ayer Tawar, Ayer Tawar Baharu, Taman Dinding, Ayer Tawar Selatan, Ayer Tawar Tengah, Astaka, Pekan Gurney, Simpang Dua, Sitiawan, Taman Pegawai, Kampong China Utara, Kampong China Selatan, Kampong Koh Utara, Kampong Koh Selatan, Parit, Belanja, Buloh Akar, Chopin Kiri, Chopin Kanan, Kampong Prah, Kampong Tepus, Tanjong Belanja, Serapoh, Kampong Nyior, Kampong Tua Belanja Kiri, Belanja Kanan, Ladang Glenealy, Parit Utara, Parit Selatan, Belanja Kiri, Tanjong Medan, Kampong Dusun, Kampong Selboh, Kampong Kepala Pulau, Layang-Layang Kanan, Bota, Titi Gantong, Kampong Aji, Kompleks Pertanian, Bota Kiri, Telok Kepayang, Kampong Bakong, Lambor Kiri, Padang Tenggala, Seri Iskandar, Kampong Selat, Bota Kanan, Suak Padi, Padang Changkat, Telok Bakong, Lambor Kanan, Kampar, Malim Nawar, Malim Nawar Utara, Malim Nawar Tengah, Malim Nawar Lama, Malim Nawar Selatan, Malim Nawar Baharu, Kampar Barat, Mambang Diawan Utara, Mambang Diawan Selatan, Mambang Diawan Barat, Tronoh Mines, Kampong Ayer Papan, Pekan Tanjong Tualang, Kampong Timah, Changkat Tin, Keranji, Kampar Utara, Wah Loong Road, Jalan Kuala Dipang, Jalan Gopeng, Kampong Changkat, Jalan Keranji, Jalan Labu, Wah Loong Tengah, Wah Loong Selatan, Jalan Post Office, Jalan Iskandar, Tualang Sekah, Ayer Denak, Kampong Batu Tujoh, Ladang Lembah Kinta, Kampong Chenderong, Kampong Ayer Mati, Changkat Tualang, Ladang Kinta Kellas, Ladang Kota Bharu, Changkat Bharu, Kuala Dipang, Jeram Selatan, Jeram Timor, Jeram Barat, Gunong Mesah, Sungai Siput Selatan, Kampong Sahum, Gopeng, Sungai Rapat, Ara Payong, Sri Jaya, Sri Rahmat, Desa Pelancongan, Desa Pakatan, Rapat Jaya, Sungai Rokam, Simpang Pulai, Pekan Razaki, Ampang Baharu, Taman Ampang, Kampong Seri Ampang, Taman Ipoh Jaya, Rapat Setia Baru, Rapat Setia, Gunong Rapat Utara, Gunung Rapat Selatan, Taman Taufik, Kampong Sengat, Teja, Pos Raya, Kampong Kepayang, Kampong Tekkah Baharu, Kampong Bharu Kopisan, Lawan Kuda Barat, Lawan Kuda Timor, Lawan Kuda Selatan, Kampong Pulai, Kampong Rawa, Kampong Sungai Itek, Chenderiang, Kuala Woh, Kampong Kinjang, Pekan Chenderiang, Sungai Chenderiang, Temoh, Pekan Temoh, Kampong Lubok Mas, Temoh Road, Kampong Datoh, Kampong Seberang, Sungai Sengkuang, Bidor Road, Lubok Katak, Kampong Batu Melintang, Bukit Pagar, Tanah Mas, Temoh Stesyen, Sungai Lesong, Kampong Sungai Kurong, Sungai Keroh, Kampong Batu Mesjid, Kampong Batu Tiga, Banir, Banir Utara, Ayer Kuning Selatan, Tanjong Keramat, Changkat Petai, Tapah Road Timor, Tapah Road Utara, Kampong Raya, Pekan Getah, Kampong Simpang Tiga, Kampong Rahmat, Jeram Mengkuang, Kampong Coldstream, Pasir Salak, Sungai Manik, Labu Kubong, Kunci Ayer Empat, Chenderong Balai, Simpang Empat Balai Polis, Kampong SC, Headworks, Parit Satu, Parit 13A Sungai Lampam, Parit 3A Sungai Tunku, Kampong Parit 3D, Permatang, Chikus, Degong, Langkap Tengah, Langkap Utara, Pelawan Timor, Chui Chak, Kampong SC Air Hitam, Telok Sareh, Sungai Galah, Chenderong Kelubi, Changkat Pinggan, Kampong Balun Bidai, Kampong Setia, Pulau Tiga, Kampong Pasir Garam, Kampong Paloh Pachat, Tanjong Bidara, Kampong Geronggong, Selat Pulau, Pasir Jeneris, Pulau Juar, Kampong Pulau Besar, Bukit Cawi Seberang Perak, Bandar Pusat Seberang Perak, Kampong Sejagop, Kota Setia, Kampong Sungai Ranggam, Sungai Jejawi, Ladang Seberang, Kampong Sungai Durian, Ladang Rubana Bahagian 2, Kampong Sungai Rubana, Sungai Besar, Tanjong Kubu, Kampong Telok Baharu, Lumut, Sungai Wangi, Ladang Sungai Wangi, Kampong Sitiawan, Samudera, Pundut, Bandar Baru Seri Manjung, Seri Manjung, Kampong Dato Sri Kamarudin, Batu 8 Lekir, FELCRA Lekir, Lekir, Lekir Tengah, Sungai Tiram Lekir, Kayan, Pangkor, Damar Laut, Telok Muroh, Pengkalan TLDM, Sungai Pinang Besar, Sungai Pinang Kechil, Pasir Bogak, Pekan Pangkor, Telok Gedong, Bagan Datuk, Rungkup, Melintang Estate, Bagan Datok, Pasang Api, Sungai Balai Baroh, Sungai Betul, Sungai Balai Darat, Sungai Nipah Darat, Simpang Tiga Rungkup, Kuala Perak Estate, Tebok Bengkang, Sungai Batang, Sungai Haji Mohamad, Selekoh, Sungai Che Maja, Sungai Lancang, Bagan Sungai Belukang, Tanah Lalang, Sungai Dulang, Kampong Sungai Buloh, Kampong Baharu Batu 16, Kuala Bernam Estate, Batu Dua Puloh, Bagan Pasir, Parit 4, Parit 7, Sungai Sumun, Parit 13, Parit 21, Batu Dua Belas, Jalan Feri, Kampong Baharu Jenderata, Jenderata, Jenderata Estate Div. 3, Kampong Kebun Baru, Kampong Telok Buloh, Teluk Intan, Pasir Bedamar, Sungai Suli, Sungai Temah, Pasir Bedamar Barat, Pasir Bedamar Utara, Pasir Bedamar Tengah, Pasir Bedamar Selatan, Jalan Market Barat, Jalan Market Timor, Jalan Anson, Jalan Canal, Jalan Speedy, Jalan Sungai Nibong, Eastern Garden, Jalan Laxamana, Kampong Guru, Jalan Batak Rabit Utara, Jalan Batak Rabit Selatan, Taman Seri Setia, Pekan Baru, Changkat Jong, Sungai Tunku, Sungai Kerawai, Ladang Sussex, Ladang Selaba, Taman Cecily, Kampong Padang Tembak, Batak Rabit, Nova Scotia, Kampong Selaba, Batu Dua Belas Utara, Kampong Baru Ayer Hitam, Kampong Changkat Jong, Kampong Sungai Samak, Sungai Bugis, Ladang Sungai Samak, Ladang Ulu Bernam, Tanjong Malim, Sungkai, Pos Gedong, Jalan Bruseh, Bidor Tengah, Bidor Baharu, Pekan Bidor, Bidor Barat, Bidor Station Utara, Kampong Bahru Jalan Sungkai, Pekan Pasir, Bikam, Kampong Baharu Bikam, Pekan Sungkai, Buloh Telor, Slim, Ladang Sungkai, Changkat Sulaiman, Trolak Utara, Trolak Selatan, Trolak, Pekan Slim, Sungai Slim Utara, Kampong Kuala Slim, Ladang Kelapa Bali, FELDA Gunong Besout II, FELDA Gunong Besout I, FELDA Gunong Besout V, Behrang, Kampong Poh, Perlok, Pos Tenau, Klah, Trolak Timor, Pos Bersih, Ulu Slim, Slim Village, Ladang Clunny, Kampong Balun, Behrang Station, Behrang Timor, Behrang Ulu, Kampong Sungai Sekiah, Kampong Keteyong, Kampong Simpang Ampat, Kampong Lambak, Jalan Keteyong, Kampong Melaka, Jalan Beirop, Kampong Loke Yew, Cameron Highlands, Tanah Rata, Pos Terisu, Pos Telanuk, Pos Lemoi, Pos Mensun, Lembah Bertam, Bandar Ringlet, Habu, Ladang Boh 1, Ladang Boh 2, Kea Farm, Berinchang, Ladang Sungai Palas, Ladang Blue Valley, Kuala Terla, Teringkap, Pos Lanai, Kuala Medang, Tanjung Gahai, Bukit Kota, Kampung Keledek, Lubuk Kulit, FELDA Sungai Koyan Satu, FELDA Sungai Koyan Dua & Tiga, Pos Betau, Pos Sinderut, Pos Lenjang, Pos Titum, Lipis, Padang Tengku, Merapoh, Mentara, Teluk Gunung, Kampung Petola, Pagar Sasak, FELDA Sungai Kechau, Ladang Selborne, Gua, Tempoyang, Bapong, Relong, Berchang, Telang, Seberang Jelai, Kechur, Aur Gading, Chegar Perah, Sungai Temau, Cheka, Kuala Lanar, Kuala Kenong, Mela, Kerambit, Kampung Baru Penjom, Penjom, Cheneras, Sungai Kerpan, Batu Kurap, Bandar Lipis, Bukit Bius, Benta, Rengai, Tanjung Besar, Jeransang, Budu, Pekan Benta, Kampung Baru Benta, Jerkoh, Ladang Benta, Ladang Budu, Raub, Batu Talam, Hulu Atok, Atok, Sega, Chenua, Kundang Patah, Cheroh, Hulu Sungai, FELDA Tersang Tiga, FELDA Tersang Dua, FELDA Tersang Satu, Batu Malim, Tras, Sungai Ruan, Hulu Gali, Pintu Padang, Kampung Sempalit, Kampung Baru Sempalit, Simpang Kallang, Kampung Melayu, Bukit Koman, Sungai Lui, Bandar Raub, Raub Jaya, Pekan Tras, Bukit Fraser, Sungai Chetang, Kampung Sang Lee, Dong, Pamah Rawas, Pamah Kulat, FELDA Lembah Klau, FELDA Krau, Gali Tengah, Gali Hilir, Durian Sebatang, Kampung Temau, Pekan Dong, Tanjung Putus, Jerantut, Tahan, Kampung Gusai, Kampung Bantal, Kampung Mat Daling, Kampung Pagi, FELDA Sungai Retang, FELDA Padang Piol, Kampung Gajah Mati, Pulau Mansuk, Jerantut Feri, Tanah Rom, Teh, Kuala Tembeling, Pasir Durian, Kampung Chebong, Kampung Merting, Kuala Tahan, Damak, Batu Balai, Kampung Damak, Kampung Koi, Kampung Som, Kampung Baharu, Kampung Lata Kasah, Bandar Jerantut Luar, Bandar Baru, Sungai Jan, Taman Muhibbah, Inderapura, Kampung Temin, Kampung Gintong, Kampung Batu Kawah, Bukit Dinding, Jeransong, Sungai Lekok, Hulu Cheka, Pulau Tawar, FELDA Kota Gelanggi 2, FELDA Lepar Utara Tiga, FELDA Sungai Tekam Utara, Pusat Penyelidikan Tun Razak, FELDA Sungai Tekam, FELDA Jengka 10, FELDA Jengka 8, FELDA Jengka 9, FELDA Jengka 12, FELDA Jengka 13, FELDA Jengka 24, Durian Hijau, Bukit Nikmat, FELDA Kota Gelanggi 1, FELDA Kota Gelanggi 3, Indera Mahkota, Beserah, Cherating, Balok Makmur, Balok Baru, Balok, Sungai Karang, Alor Batu, Kampung Beserah, Seri Pelindong, Alor Akar, Air Putih Baru, Semambu, RTP Bukit Goh, Bukit Istana, Bukit Sekilau, Indera Mahkota 1, Bukit Ubi, Bukit Setongkol, Taman LKNP, Chenderawasih, Indera Mahkota 2, Kuantan, Teruntum, Seri Kuantan, Perkampungan Teratai, Medan Tok Sira, Kampung Selamat, Bandar Kuantan, Seri Teruntum, Seri Berlian, Lapang Besar, Tanjung Lumpur, Medan Warisan, Medan Makmur, Seri Kemunting, Kempadang, Kampung Peramu, Tanah Putih Baru, Sungai Isap Murni, Sungai Isap, Kuala Penor, Cherok Paloh, Ubai, Kampung Pahang, Taman Guru, Sungai Lembing, Kampung Nadak, Pekan Sungai Lembing, Kuala Kenau, FELDA Bukit Sagu, FELDA Bukit Kuantan, FELDA Bukit Goh, Bukit Kuin, Lepar, Mahkota Jaya, Seri Fajar, Gambang, Jalan Besar, FELDA Lepar Hilir Satu, FELDA Lepar Hilir Dua, FELDA Lepar Hilir Tiga, Paya Bungor, FELDA Lepar Utara Satu, Panching, Bukit Rangin, Kampung Permatang Badak, Pandan Permai, Taman Tas, FELDA Sungai Panching Selatan, FELDA Sungai Panching Timur, FELDA Sungai Panching Utara, Kampung Panching, Pekan, Seri Mahkota, Jaya Gading, Kampung Seri Damai, Gudang Rasau, Ganchong, Pelak, Seri Makmur, Peramu Jaya, Kampung Lamir, Tanah Putih, Serandu, Kuala Pahang, Kampung Marhum, Ketapang, Sungai Miang, Bandar Pekan, Mengkasar, Pulau Jawa, Kelat Rendang, Kampung Langgar, Pahang Tua, Shahbandar, Bebar, Serambi, Padang Rumbia, Temai, Acheh, Tanjung Medang, Padang Polo, Tanjung Batu, Landai, Nenasi, Merchong, Api Larat, Sawah Batu, Kota Perdana, Simpai, Runchang, Bandar Dua, Chini, Terpai, Salong, Mambang, Paloh Hinai, FELDA Chini Timur 3 & 4, FELDA Chini Timur 1, FELDA Chini Timur 2, FELDA Chini 5, FELDA Chini 4, FELDA Chini 1, FELDA Chini 2, FELDA Chini 3, Maran, Luit, Kampung Seri Jaya, Kampung New Zealand, Kampung Luit, Serengkam, Kuala Wau, Lubuk Paku, Kampung Senggora, Sri Keramat, Bandar Maran, FELDA Bukit Tajau, Kampung Sentosa, Kuala Sentul, FELDA Jengka 1, Sungai Jerik, FELDA Jengka 5, FELDA Jengka 4, FELDA Jengka 3, FELDA Jengka 2, Ulu Jempol, Chenor, FELDA Jengka 6, FELDA Jengka 7, Paya Pasir, Pesagi, Pejing, Kertau, Sekara, Chenor Seberang, Bandar Chenor, Bukit Segumpal, FELDA Kampung Awah, FELDA Sungai Nerek, Kampung Jengka, Kuala Krau, Jenderak, Kampung Pian, Sungai Mai, Kuala Mai, Paya Luas, FELDA Jenderak Utara, Kampung Jenderak, Kampung Dato Shariff, FELDA Jenderak Selatan, Paya Pelong, Penderas, Kerdau, Rumpun Makmur, FELDA Jengka 25, FELDA Jengka 22, Kampung Batu Sawar, FELDA Jengka 23, Kuala Tekal, Kerai, Lipat Kajang, Desa Murni, Kuala Kerdau, Teluk Sentang, Jengka 10, FELDA Jengka 11, Bandar Pusat, FELDA Jengka 14, FELDA Jengka 21, FELDA Jengka 15, FELDA Jengka 16, FELDA Jengka 20, FELDA Jengka 17, FELDA Jengka 18, FELDA Jengka 19, Temerloh, Mentakab, Taman Rimba, Bandar Mentakab, Sungai Semantan, Tanjung Kerayong, Kampung Sungai Ara, Mentakab Tengah, Taman KSM, Kampung Chatin, Sri Kemuning, Temerloh Jaya, Lanchang, Tanjung Belengu, Pangsenam, Buntut Pulau, Ladang Yeow Cheng Luan, Desa Bakti, Sri Layang, Batu Kapur, Ladang Edensor, Sungai Kepong, Kampung Dala, Kuala Kawang, Bandar Lanchang, Mempatih, Bolok, FELDA Bukit Damar, FELDA Lakum, Kuala Semantan, Sri Semantan, Sanggang, Songsang, Sanggang Seberang, Kampung Gau, Teluk Ira, Bangau, Bandar Temerloh, Kampung Batu, Jalan Bahagia, Sri Bahagia, Lubuk Pasu, Paya Pulai, Lebak Seberang, Bentong, Bilut, FELDA Lurah Bilut, Kampung Lebu, Bandar Bentong, Kemansur, Chamang, Repas, Chamang Luar, Chamang Baharu, Sungai Penjuring, Ketari, FELDA Mempaga 2, FELDA Mempaga 3, FELDA Mempaga 1, Janda Baik, Genting Highlands, Benus, Perting, Sungai Marong, Sabai, FELDA Sertik, Jambu Rias, Sri Telemong, Pekan Karak, Karak Setia, Taman Karak, Kampung Baru Karak, Pelangai, FELDA Sungai Kemasul, FELDA Chemomoi, FELDA Sungai Kemahal, Kampung Jawi-Jawi, Simpang Pelangai, Manchis, Sungai Gapoi, Telemong, Sungai Perdak, Bera, Guai, Charok Puting, Batu Bor, Bohor Baharu, FELDA Purun, FELDA Mayam, FELDA Kumai, FELDA Bukit Kepayang, Bukit Rok, Kuala Bera, Kuala Triang, Senyum Jempol, Durian Tawar, Mengkarak, Triang, Ladang Menteri, Kerayong, Bandar Triang, Kampung Baru Triang, Sri Buntar, FELDA Bukit Puchong, FELDA Bukit Mendi, Kemayan, Bukit Gemuroh, FELDA Triang Dua & Tiga, FELDA Tementi, FELDA Rentam, FELDA Sebertak, FELDA Bera Selatan, Kampung Pasal, Pos Iskandar, FELDA Tembangau, FELDA Triang Satu, Kampung Dato Seri Hamzah, Ladang Kemayan, Rompin, Bukit Ibam, Bandar Bukit Ibam, Kampung Aur, Kota Bahagia, Bukit Serok, FELDA Keratong 2, FELDA Keratong 3, FELDA Keratong 5, FELDA Keratong 7, FELDA Keratong 4, FELDA Keratong 1, FELDA Selancar 1, Muadzam Shah, Bukit Ridan, FELDA Keratong 10, FELDA Keratong 9, FELDA Keratong 8, Kedaik, Gading, Leban Chondong, FELDA Keratong 6, FELDA Selancar, FELDA Selancar 3, Tioman, Sungai Puteri, Kuala Rompin, Bandar Baru Rompin, Pontian, FELDA Selendang, Sarang Tiong, Kampung Janglau, Endau, Pianggu, Denai, Tekek, Juara, Kampung Genting, Mukut, Sungai Air Tawar, Parit Baharu Baruh, Sungai Tengar Utara, Sungai Bernam, Sungai Air Tawar Selatan, Sungai Tengar Selatan, Kampung Parit Baharu, Kampung Teluk Belanga, Beting Kepah, Kampung Teluk Rhu, Kampung Sekendi, Kampung Banting, Kampung Batu 38 Baruh, Sabak Bernam Barat, Kampung Air Manis, Kampung Seri Aman, Tebuk Pulai, Torkington, Sabak Bernam Timur, Bagan Nira, Kampung Sapintas, Kampung Bagan Terap, Bagan Terap Parit Sembilan, Tebuk Kenchong, Parit Enam, Parit Dua Timur, Parit Tiga & Empat, Parit Satu Barat, Sungai Lias, Batu 4 Sapintas, Sungai Panjang, Parit 16 - Belia 2, Parit 13 - 15 Sungai Panjang, Parit 6 - 12 Sungai Panjang, Parit 2 - 5 Sungai Panjang, Pekan Sungai Besar, Bagan Sungai Besar, Parit Satu Timur, Sungai Haji Dorani, Peket Enam Puluh, Parit 13 Sungai Nipah, Sungai Nipah, Sungai Nibong, Pasir Panjang Tengah, Pasir Panjang Selatan, Taman Berkat, Parit 6 - 12 Timur, Kampung Baharu Nelayan, Sekinchan, Sungai Leman Bendang Utara, Sungai Leman Bendang Tengah, Sungai Leman Bendang Selatan, Sungai Leman Kampung Darat, Sungai Leman Kampung Laut, Sekinchan Selatan, Sekinchan Tempatan Selatan, Sekinchan Tempatan Tengah, Sekinchan Tempatan Site B, Kian Sit, Hulu Selangor, Hulu Bernam, Kawasan S.K.C, Ladang Lima Belas, Gedangsa, Sungai Selisik, Kampung Gesir, Kampung Sungai Dusun, Kampung Desa Maju, Kampung Sungai Tengi Selatan, Changkat Asa, Kampung Hulu Bernam, Ladang Escot, Kampung Gumut, Bandar Kalumpang, Kampung Baharu Kalumpang, Kuala Kalumpang, Kuala Kubu Baharu, Kampung Baharu Kerling, Pertak, Ampang Pechah, Kampung Baharu China K.K.B, Bandar Kuala Kubu Baharu, Kampung Air Jernih, Kerling, Lembah Beringin, Ladang Nigel Gardner, Jalan Kuala Kali, Kampung Baharu Rasa, Pekan Rasa, Kampung Baharu Batang Kali, Hulu Yam Lama, Bandar Utama Batang Kali, Batu 30 Hulu Yam, Batang Kali, Bukit Rasa, Hulu Kali, Hulu Yam Baru 1, Hulu Yam Baru 2, Serendah, Sungai Choh, Sungai Gapi, Taman Bukit Teratai, Bukit Beruntung, Bandar Sungai Buaya, Bukit Sentosa 1 Hingga 5, Bukit Sentosa 6 Hingga 12, Kampung Baharu Serendah, Taman Bunga Raya 2, Seri Serendah, Tanjong Karang, Terusan Besar, Sawah Sempadan Utara, Sungai Burong Bendang, Sungai Burong Utara, Sungai Burong Selatan, Batu 9 Tanjong Karang, Sungai Sireh, Sungai Sireh Utara, Sawah Sempadan Selatan, Sungai Tengi Kanan, Sungai Kajang, Pekan Tanjong Karang, Batu 7 Tanjong Karang, Batu 11 Tanjong Karang, Bagan Pasir Tanjong Karang, Hulu Tiram Buruk, Hulu Tiram Buruk Utara, Batang Berjuntai Satu, Ladang Mary, Batang Berjuntai Utara, Kampung Raja Musa, Ladang Raja Musa, Kampung Baharu Tiram Buruk, Parit Serong, Sungai Gulang-Gulang, Hujung Permatang, Pasir Penambang, Sungai Yu, Sawah Sempadan, Kampung Lubuk Jaya, Kuala Selangor, Bukit Melawati, Asam Jawa, Kampung Kuantan Kelab, Kampung Kuantan, Pasangan, Ladang Sungai Rambai, Bukit Rotan, Api-Api, Teluk Piai, Bukit Kuching, Pekan Sungai Buluh, Jeram Utara, Sasaran Jeram, Ijok, Sungai Darah, Bestari Jaya Selatan, Jaya Setia, Bukit Badong, Kampung Ijok, Pekan Ijok, Simpang Ijok, Bestari Jaya Utara, Ladang Bukit Ijok, Parit Mahang, Bukit Cherakah, FELDA Bukit Cherakah, Bukit Hijau, Bukit Kuching Tengah, Sungai Sembilang, Tambak Jawa, Bukit Cloh, Bukit Kerayong, Jeram Pantai, Bandar Puncak Alam, Tuan Mee, Selayang, Pengkalan Kundang, Pekan Kuang, Kampung Gombak, Kampung Kuang, Kampung Cempedak, Sri Kundang, Bandar Tasik Puteri, Penjara Sungai Buloh, Rawang, Bandar Country Home 1, Kuala Garing, Kampung Rajah, Kampung Kenanga, Kampung Baharu Rawang, Taman Sri Hijau, Kanching, Taman Bukit Rawang, Kampung Tanjung, Bandar Country Home 2, Kota Emerald East & West, Garing Jaya, Batu Arang Barat, Batu Arang Timur, Batu Arang Selatan, Taman Templer, Batu 16 Rawang, Bandar Baru Selayang Utara, Bukit Idaman, Selayang Baharu Tiga, Selayang Baharu Dua, Selayang Baharu Satu, Taman Selayang Baharu, Selayang Pandang, Sri Melati, Bandar Baru Selayang Selatan, Kampung Bendahara, Lembah Mutiara, Kampung Selayang Permai, Kampung Selayang Indah, Taman Selayang Indah, Prima Selayang, Gombak, Sungai Tua, Wira Damai, Taman Jasa, Kampung Nakhoda, Kampung Laksamana, Selayang Baharu Empat, Selayang Baharu Lima, Taman Selayang, Taman Batu Caves, Pekan Batu Caves Lama, Batu Caves, Batu 8 Sungai Tua, Gombak Setia, Sri Gombak 9, Taman Greenwood, Batu 8 Gombak, Gombak Selatan, Sri Gombak 2 - 7, Taman Gombak, Sri Gombak 1, Batu 9 Gombak, Taman Kamariah, Sri Gombak 10, Sri Gombak 8, Pinggiran Batu Caves, Taman Selaseh, Hulu Kelang, Bandar Melawati, Kelang Gate, Taman Melawati, Kemensah, Taman Permata, Keramat Tengah AU 4, AU3 Rumah Teres, Sri Keramat AU 2A, Keramat AU 1, Keramat Pangsa, Melawati Jalan F & H, Lembah Keramat AU 5C, Desa Keramat AU 2B & AU 2C, Lembah Keramat AU 5D, Keramat AU 1B, AU3 Rumah Pangsa, Melawati Jalan G.E.C, Enggang Utara, Enggang Selatan, Ampang, Bukit Antarabangsa, Taman Dato Ahmad Razali, Ukay Height, Ampang Jaya, Kampung Baharu Ampang 1, Kampung Melayu Ampang, Pekan Ampang, Kampung Baharu Ampang 2, Kampung Sri Tanjung, Pinggiran Ukay, Kuala Ampang, Ukay Perdana, Kampung Baharu Ampang Kedua, Kampung Baharu Ampang Pertama, Bandar Baru Ampang, Kampung Baharu Ampang Ketiga, Taman Dagang, Taman Cahaya, Lembah Jaya, Taman Tun Abdul Razak, Lembah Jaya Utara, Taman Kosas, Bukit Indah Jalan 1 & 2, Seri Watan, Seri Ampang, Bukit Ampang, Tasik Tambahan Utara, Ampang Campuran Jalan Ikan Emas, Lembah Jaya Selatan, Kampung Tengah Lembah Jaya, Taman Ampang Indah, Taman Rasmi Jaya, Tasik Tambahan Selatan, Kampung Ampang Indah, Taman Mulia Jaya, Ampang Campuran Jalan Ikan Jelawat, Bukit Indah Jalan 3P.100 Pandan, Pandan Indah, Taman Nirwana, Angsana Hilir, Kampung Pandan Dalam Kiri, Lorong Raya Kampung Pandan, Pandan Jaya Utara, Taman Chempaka, Pandan Indah Jalan 1, 4 dan 6, Lorong Molek Kampung Pandan, Lorong Bersih Kampung Pandan, Pandan Jaya Selatan, Taman Bakti, Pandan Indah Jalan 2 & 3, Ampang Hilir, Cheras Indah, Taman Maju Jaya, Taman Kenchana, Kampung Cheras Baharu Timur, Desa Nirwana, Teratai, Pandan Perdana Timur, Taman Muda Timur, Taman Putra, Taman Seraya, Taman Mega Jaya, Taman Mawar, Pandan Perdana Barat, Kampung Cheras Baharu Barat, Taman Muda Barat, Cheras Hartamas, Tasik Permai, Pandan Indah Jalan 5, Pandan Mewah, Hulu Langat, Dusun Tua, Pansun, Lui, Pekan Lui, Sungai Tekali, Batu 14 Hulu Langat, Batu 9 Cheras, Kampung Sungai Raya, Taman Suntex, Taman Cuepac, Batu 13 Hulu Langat, Sri Nanding, Kampung Melaka, Taman Alam Jaya, Taman Kota Cheras, Batu 10 Cheras, Semenyih, Semenyih Barat, Hulu Semenyih, Tarun, Kampung Baharu Semenyih, Pekan Semenyih, Semenyih Selatan, Kampung Rinching, Bandar Rinching Seksyen 1 - 4, Sesapan Kelubi, Sesapan Batu, Sungai Jai, Beranang, Kuala Pajam, Sungai Kembung, Sesapan Batu Rembau, Kampung Batu 26 Beranang, Penjara Kajang, Semenyih Indah, Bandar Rinching Seksyen 5 - 6, Bandar Tasik Kesuma, Kantan Permai, Bukit Mahkota, Bangi, Kajang, Sungai Sekamat, Saujana Impian, Taman Mesra, Sungai Kantan, Taman Kajang Baharu, Bandar Kajang, Bandar Sungai Long, Bandar Mahkota, Taman Rakan, Taman Asa Jaya, Kajang Perdana, Sungai Jeluk, Taman Bukit Mewah, Reko Utara, Taman Jasmin, Reko Selatan, Taman Kajang Mewah, Bukit Kajang Baru, Kajang Prima, Sungai Ramal, Sungai Ramal Luar, Sungai Ramal Dalam, Seksyen 3 BBB, Seksyen 1 bandar baru, Seksyen 6 BBB, Taman Kajang Utama, Seksyen 4 BBB, Seksyen 5 BBB, Seksyen 2 BBB, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Seksyen 7, 8 dan 9 BBB, Bandar Teknologi Kajang, Impian Ehsan, Balakong, Kampung Baharu Balakong, Bandar Damai Perdana, Perimbun, Batu 11 Cheras, Cheras Perdana, Bandar Tun Hussein Onn, Simpang Balak, Cheras Jaya, Taman Suria Jaya, Taman Sri Bahagia, Balakong Jaya, Taming Jaya, Sungai Chua Satu, Sungai Chua Dua, Sungai Chua Tiga, Sungai Chua Empat, Sungai Chua Lima, Puchong, Seri Kembangan, Serdang Lama, Serdang Utama, Seri Kembangan 2, Seri Kembangan 1, Seri Kembangan 4, Seri Kembangan 5, Seri Kembangan 9, Seri Kembangan 11, Seri Kembangan 8, Seri Kembangan 10, Seri Kembangan 12, Seri Kembangan 7, Seri Kembangan 6, Seri Kembangan 3, Bukit Serdang, Taman Universiti Indah, Desa Serdang, Sungai Besi Indah, Serdang Raya, Taman Bukit Belimbing, Seri Serdang, Serdang Jaya 1, Seri Serdang Utara, Kawasan UPM, Kampung Sri Aman, Batu 14 Puchong, Seri Serdang Selatan 1, Bandar Bukit Puchong, Taman Puchong Utama, Taman Pinggiran Putra, Serdang Jaya 2, Puchong Permai, Seri Indah, Seri Serdang Selatan 2, Subang, Kinrara, Kinrara Seksyen 4, 5 & 6, Kinrara Seksyen 2, Kinrara Seksyen 1, Kinrara Seksyen 7, Kinrara Seksyen 3, Puchong Jaya Timur, Puchong Jaya Utara, Puchong Jaya Barat, Batu 12 Puchong, Batu 7 Jalan Puchong, Batu 13 Puchong, Bandar Kinrara Seksyen 1, Pusat Bandar Puchong, Bandar Kinrara Seksyen 2, Bandar Kinrara Seksyen 3, Bandar Kinrara Seksyen 4, Bandar Kinrara Seksyen 5, Bandar Puteri, Puchong Indah 1, Puchong Perdana 1, Puchong Perdana 2, Puchong Indah 2, Puchong Intan, Subang Jaya, PJS 7 Bandar Sunway, SS 12, SS 15, SS 16 & SS 17, SS 19/1, SS 18, SS 14/1-4, SS 13, USJ 1, USJ 2/1-4, USJ 3, USJ 4, USJ 5, USJ 6, USJ 7 & 8, USJ 9 & USJ 10, USJ 11, USJ 12, USJ 13, USJ 14 & 15, SS 19/2 - SS 19/5, SS 19/6 - SS 19/19, PJS 9 & 11 Bandar Sunway, SS 14/5-8, USJ 2/5-7, USJ 16 hingga 22P.105 Petaling Jaya, Seri Setia, Glenmarie, SS 6, SS 5D, SS 5B & 5C, SS 5A, PJS 5 Kampung Penaga, PJS 6/4 - PJS 6/6, PJS 10/1 - PJS 10/16, Rumah Pangsa Sungai Way, PJS 5/1 - PJS 5/12, PJS 6/1 - PJS 6/3, PJS 8, PJS 10/17 - PJS 10/34, SS 7, Kampung Lindungan, PJS 5/13 - PJS 5/30, Taman TTDI Jaya, Ara Damansara, Taman Glenmarie, Taman Medan, Seksyen 51, Seksyen 4 Petaling Jaya, Kawasan Melayu, PJS 1, Medan Pejasa, Taman Dato Harun 1, Taman Dato Harun 2, PJS 3, PJS 4, Baiduri, Petaling Utama, PJS 2, PJS 2C/12, PJS 2D, Kampung Medan, PJS 2C, Seksyen 17 Utara, Seksyen 17 Barat, Seksyen 17 Tengah, Seksyen 17 Selatan, Seksyen 16, Jalan Bukit, Jalan Semangat, Seksyen 5 Utara, Taman Jaya, Kawasan Assunta Convent, Kawasan Bandar Baharu, Jalan Sungai Jernih, Seksyen Satu Petaling Jaya, Kawasan Bangunan K.K.P.L, Seksyen 5 Selatan, Seksyen 17A, Seksyen 19, Seksyen 14 Utara, Seksyen 14 Selatan, Seksyen 2 Petaling Jaya, Damansara, Kampung Tunku, Seksyen 21 Timur, Seksyen 20 Utara, Seksyen 20 Selatan, Seksyen 22, Kampung Tunku Utara, Kampung Tunku Selatan, SS 3 Utara, SS 3 Barat, SS 3 Timur, Sungai Way Utara, Sungai Way Tengah Dua, Sungai Way Tengah Satu, Sungai Way Selatan Dua, Sungai Way Selatan Satu, SS 2 Utara, SS 2 Tengah, SS 2 Selatan, Seksyen 21 Barat, Bandar Utama, SS 21 Utara, SS 20, Damansara Jaya Utara, SS 23, SS 24, SS 26, Kampung Chempaka, SS 25, SS 4, SS 21 Selatan, Damansara Jaya Selatan, Bandar Utama BU 1 & BU 2, Sungai Kayu Ara Utara, Bandar Utama BU 3 - BU 10, Bandar Utama BU 11 - BU 12, Sungai Kayu Ara Selatan, Kayu Ara Indah, Sunway Damansara PJU 3, Bukit Lanjan, Desa Jaya Jalan 1- Jalan 19, Sri Damansara Jalan SD1-SD 5, Sri Damansara Jalan SD7 - Jalan SD9, Desa Jaya Jalan 20 - Jalan 38, Desa Jaya Jalan 39 - Jalan 56, Damansara Damai PJU 10, Sri Damansara Jalan SD 10, Sri Damansara Jalan SD 12, Saujana Damansara PJU 10, Taman Ehsan Jalan 5, Taman Ehsan Jalan 2, Desa Aman Puri, Taman Ehsan Jalan 4, Selayang Utama, Kepong Utara, Selayang Jaya, Taman Daya, Taman Indah Perdana, Taman Bidara, Paya Jaras, Petempatan Sungai Buloh, Bandar Baru Sungai Buloh Utara, Bukit Rahman Putra, Merbau Sempak, Bandar Baru Sungai Buloh Selatan, Sungai Pelong, Paya Jaras Hilir, Matang Pagar, Taman Saujana Utama, Kota Damansara, Kampung Baharu Sungai Buloh Sekolah, Kampung Baharu Sungai Buloh Dewan, RRI Sungai Buloh, Pinggiran Subang, Taman Subang Baru, Kampung Melayu Subang, Subang Perdana, Kota Damansara Seksyen 4 dan 5, LTSSAAS Subang, Kampung Baharu Subang, Kota Damansara Seksyen 7, Jalan Merbau Kampung Melayu Subang, Mutiara Subang, Kota Damansara Seksyen 6, Kota Damansara Seksyen 8 dan 9, Kota Damansara Seksyen 10 dan 11, Kem Sungai Buloh, Shah Alam, Kota Anggerik, Setia Alam, Monterez, Shah Alam S 9, Shah Alam S 8, Shah Alam S 1 & S 7/23-7/76, Shah Alam S 6, Shah Alam S 3, Shah Alam S 2, Shah Alam S 4 & S 5, Shah Alam S 10, Shah Alam S 11, S 12 & S 14, Shah Alam S 15 & S 16, Mutiara Bukit Raja, Pangsapuri S7, Bukit Jelutong U8, Shah Alam S 13, Apartment S16, Bukit Bandaraya, Bukit Subang, Shah Alam S 7/1-7/22, Batu Tiga, Taman Batu Tiga, Kampung Kebun Bunga, Pinggiran USJ, Shah Alam S 20 - S 23, Shah Alam S 19/15-19/31, Shah Alam S 19/1 - 19/14, Shah Alam S 24/1-24/38, Apartment S 24, Shah Alam S 17 Timur, Padang Jawa, Sungai Rasau, Taman Kampung Kuantan, Shah Alam S 17 Barat, Rimba Jaya, Shah Alam S 18 Barat 1, Shah Alam S 18 Timur, Shah Alam S 18 Barat 2, Shah Alam S 19/32-19/50, Shah Alam S 24P.109 Kapar, Kampung Meru, Kampung Haji Shariff, Kampung Nenas, Pekan Meru, Jalan Haji Salleh, Taman Meru Indah, Pekan Kapar, Batu 9 Kapar, Batu 10 Kapar, Sungai Kapar Indah, Taman Kapar Indah, Kampung Budiman, Sementa, Kampung Sungai Serdang, Kampung Tok Muda, Perepat, Kampung Batu Empat, Batu 11 & 12 Kapar, Taman Sri Kerayong, Taman Chempaka Sari, Kapar, Bukit Kapar Utara, Bukit Kapar Selatan, Kampung Sungai Pinang, Kampung Batu Tiga, Teluk Kapas, Taman Klang Perdana, Selat Klang, Sungai Udang Utara, Jalan Yadi, Kampong Delek, Sungai Sirih, Kuala Klang, Sri Perantau, Tanjong Klang, Sungai Lima, Bandar Pulau Ketam, Bagan Teo Chew, Sungai Udang Selatan, Kampong Delek Kanan, Kampong Delek Kiri, Bandar Sultan Sulaiman, Kampung Raja Uda Timur, Kampung Raja Uda Barat, Klang, Bandar Baru Klang, Taman Eng Ann 1, Persiaran Sultan Ibrahim 2, Bandar Klang, Sungai Pinang Selatan, Pasar Jawa, Jalan Goh Hock Huat, Persiaran Sultan Ibrahim 1, Taman Eng Ann 2, Taman Berkeley, Bukit Kuda, Kampung Batu Belah, Taman Klang, Jalan Meru, Klang Kawasan 19, Taman Klang Utama 1, Taman Klang Utama 2, Sungai Bertih Selatan, Sungai Bertih Utara, Pelabuhan Klang, Kampung Pendamar, Kampung Idaman, Jalan Padang, Kawasan Pelabuhan, Jalan Kem, Teluk Gong Utara, Pulau Indah Utara, Pulau Indah Selatan, Pandamaran Jaya Jalan 1-12, Teluk Gong Selatan, Pandamaran Jaya Jalan 13-100, Seri Pendamar, Pandamaran Jaya Apartment, Selat Selatan, Pandamaran, Kompleks Sukan Pandamaran, Kawasan Sekolah Cina 'B', Kawasan Sekolah Cina 'A', Jalan Tengku Badar Utara, Jalan Tengku Badar Selatan, Jalan Kastam, Tengku Bendahara Azman, Raja Lumu, Sungai Aur, Teluk Pulai Utara, Kampung Attap, Jalan Tengku Kelana, Simpang Tujuh, Taman Gembira 1, Taman Selatan 1, Teluk Gadung Besar, Taman Chi Liung, Teluk Pulai Selatan, Taman Selatan 2, Taman Bayu Perdana, Taman Gembira 2, Kota Raja, Taman Klang Jaya 1, Sentosa Dato Yusof Shahbuddin, Taman Desawan, Sentosa Dato Abdul Hamid 1, Sentosa Dato Dagang, Taman Klang Jaya 2, Sentosa Dato Abdul Hamid 2, Bandar Bukit Tinggi 1, Taman Maznah, Batu 4 Jalan Kebun, Taman Menara Maju, Bandar Bukit Tinggi 2, Bandar Botanic, Sungai Kandis, Seksyen 34 Shah Alam, Teluk Menegun, LLN Connought Bridge, Kampung Pandan, Taman Seri Andalas 1, Taman Seri Andalas 2, Bukit Jati, Taman Seri Andalas 3, Jalan Raya Timur, Bandar Puteri Klang, Jalan Kebun, Johan Setia, Seri Gambut, Kampung Bukit Naga, Haji Husin Jalan Kebun, Taman Berjaya, Kota Kemuning, Shah Alam S 27 A, Shah Alam S 28, Sri Muda 1, Sri Muda 2 Utara, Bukit Kemuning, Kampung Baru HICOM, Putra Height, Sri Muda 2 Selatan, Kota Kemuning Jalan 31/1-31/80, Bukit Rimau, Shah Alam S 27 B, Apartment S 28, Kota Kemuning Jalan 31/81 - 31/170, Shah Alam S 26P.112 Kuala Langat, Sijangkang, Sijangkang Utara, Sijangkang Dalam Utara, Sijangkang Dalam Selatan, Sijangkang Selatan, Batu 9 Kebun Baharu, Teluk 1, Ladang Carey Barat, Ladang Carey Selatan, Ladang Carey Timur, Teluk 2, Sungai Bumbun, Batu 10 Kebun Baharu, Sijangkang Jaya, Taman Panglima, Bukit Kemandul, Seri Cheeding, Bukit Cheeding A, Kampung Jenjarum, Bandar Saujana Putra, Banting, Jenjarum Tempatan Kedua, Jenjarum Tempatan Ketiga, Jenjarum Tempatan Keempat, Kota Sri Langat, Sungai Manggis Utara, Sungai Manggis Selatan, Teluk Datuk, Teluk Bunut, Jenjarum, Jenjarum Tempatan Pertama, Banting Jaya, Pulau Banting, Pekan Banting, Morib, Sungai Buaya Tengah, Jugra, Sungai Raba, Kanchong, Kelanang, Kanchong Timur, Kanchong Tengah, Simpang Morib, Sri Putra, Taman Kemuning, Sepang, Tanjong Sepat, Bukit Bangkung, Sungai Rawang, Tanjong Rhu, Tanjong Sepat Tempatan 1, Tanjong Sepat Tempatan 2, Tanjong Sepat Tempatan 3, Tanjong Sepat Tempatan 4, Tanjong Sepat Tempatan 5, Tanjong Sepat 6, Kundang, Batu Laut, Kampung Endah, Sungai Lang, Sungai Kelambu, Dengkil, Sungai Lempit, Bukit Canggang, Labuhan Dagang, Ampar Tenang, Kampung Baharu Dengkil, Kampung Dengkil, Pulau Meranti, Sungai Merab Utara, Kampung Dato Abu Bakar Baginda, Sungai Merab, Desa Putra, Jenderam Hilir, Sungai Buah, RTB Datok Harun, Ladang Ampar Tenang, Kampung Melot, Bandar Putra Perdana, Taman Permata Dengkil, Desa Air Hitam, Cyberjaya, Selangor Dredging, Desa Pinggiran Putra, Kota Warisan, Sungai Pelek, Jenderam Hulu, Salak, Salak Jijan, Lothian Timur, Sepang Utara, Sepang Selatan, Hulu Cucuh, Sungai Pelek Tiga, Sungai Pelek Dua, Sungai Pelek Empat, Bandar Baru Salak Tinggi, Taman Seroja, Kampong Melayu Kepong, Jinjang Tempatan Pertama, Jinjang Tempatan Kedua, Jinjang Tempatan Ketiga, Jinjang Tempatan Keempat, Jinjang Tengah, Jinjang Tempatan Utara, Jinjang Utara, Pekan Kepong, Taman Kepong, Kepong Baru Barat, Kepong Baru Tengah, Kepong Baru Timor, Kepong Baru Tambahan, Kepong Selatan, Jinjang Tempatan Kesebelas, Jinjang Tempatan Kesepuluh, Jinjang Tempatan Keduabelas, Batu, Kampong Selayang Lama, Taman Sri Murni, Taman Intan Baiduri, Taman Beringin, Taman Wahyu, Taman Batu Permai, Taman Batu Muda, Batu Muda, Taman Koperasi Polis Fasa II, Batu Kantomen, Pekan Batu, Taman Rainbow, Taman Million, Sentul Pasar, Sentul Jaya, Sentul Utara, Pekan Setapak, Rumah Pangsa Sri Perak, Bandar Baru Sentul, Sentul Tengah, Kampong Kovil Utara, Kampong Kovil Selatan, Sentul Selatan, Wangsa Maju, Flat Taman Melati, Taman Melati, Rumah Pangsa Dewan Bandaraya Gombak, Taman Ibu Kota, Taman Setapak, Gombak Utara, Kampong Padang Balang, Kampong Puah, Taman P. Ramlee, Jalan Gombak, Teratai Mewah, Danau Kota, Genting Kelang, Seksyen 1 Wangsa Maju, Taman Desa Setapak, Seksyen 2 Wangsa Maju, Seksyen 4 Wangsa Maju, Taman Wangsa Melawati, Segambut, Taman Bukit Maluri Utara, Taman Bukit Maluri Selatan, Bandar Manjalara, Desa Park City, Taman Sri Sinar, Sri Segambut, Kampong Sungai Udang, Taman Kok Doh, Taman City Kanan, Taman Segambut, Dutamas, Sri Hartamas, Kampong Sungai Penchala, Taman Tun Dr Ismail Utara, Taman Tun Dr Ismail Tengah, Taman Tun Dr Ismail Selatan, Taman Tun Dr Ismail Timur, Medan Damansara, Bukit Damansara, Bukit Tunku, Kampong Kasipillay, Kolam Ayer, Setiawangsa, Jalan Usahawan, Taman Sri Rampai, Seksyen 5/6 Wangsa Maju, PKNS Batu 6 Ulu Klang, Keramat Wangsa, Taman Setiawangsa, Seksyen 10 Wangsa Maju, Desa Rejang, Taman Setapak Permai, Taman Setapak Jaya, Ayer Panas Dalam, Ayer Panas Luar, Ayer Panas Tengah, Taman Tasek, Pulapol, Mindef, Titiwangsa, Setapak Selatan, Kompleks Damai, Kampong Bharu Utara, Kampong Bharu Tengah, Kampong Bharu Selatan, Dato Keramat Utara, Dato Keramat Tengah, Dato Keramat Selatan, Dato Keramat Seberang, Jalan Ampang, Jalan Mengkudu, Desa Pandan, Kelab Golf Selangor, Taman Maluri, Kampong Pandan Dalam, Kampong Pandan Tengah, Jalan Cochrane, Kampong Pandan Luar, Jalan Jejaka, Bukit Bintang, Tiong Nam, Kampong Semarang, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Melayu, Medan Pasar, Bukit Nanas, Imbi Pasar, Changkat Raja Chulan, Bukit Weld, Medan Imbi, Kampong Loke Yuen, Pudu Kanan, Jalan Hang Tuah, Lebohraya Foch, Jalan Sultan, Jalan Tun Sambanthan, Brickfields Utara, Brickfields Selatan, Bukit Petaling, Persiaran Syed Putra, Lapangan Terbang, Razak Mansion, Salak Selatan, Taman Sungai Besi, Salak Tempatan Bukit, Salak Tempatan Changkat, Salak Tempatan Dalam, Desa Petaling, Lembah Pantai, Tasik Perdana, Bukit Travers, Jalan Maarof, Bukit Bangsar, Bangsar Baru, Taman Lucky, Kawasan Universiti, Pantai Baharu, Bukit Kerinchi, Kampong Haji Abdullah Hukom, Kampong Pantai Halt, Taman Bukit Angkasa, Pantai Hill Park, Pantai Dalam, Kampong Pasir, Petaling Selatan, Taman Sri Sentosa Utara, Taman Sri Sentosa Selatan, Seputeh, Kampong Penghulu Mat, Taman Desa, Kuchai, Taman United, Taman Happy Utara, Taman Happy Tengah, Taman Happy Selatan, Kuchai Entrepreneurs Park, Taman Salak South Utara, Taman Salak South, Taman Sri Petaling Timur, Taman Sri Petaling, Bandar Sri Petaling, Taman Overseas Union Selatan, Taman Overseas Union Utara, Taman Yarl, Kampong Bohol, PPR Muhibbah, Bukit Jalil, Kampong Sungai Besi, Cheras, Jalan Pasar, Jalan San Peng, Rumah Pangsa Loke Yew, Jalan Loke Yew, Jalan Sungai Besi, Jalan Chan Sow Lin, Pudu Hujung, Jalan Cheras, Pudu Ulu, Taman Miharja, Batu 3-4 Jalan Cheras, Taman Shamelin Perkasa, Kampong Cheras Batu 4, Bukit A Cheras Baru, Cheras Baru, Taman Cheras, Taman Midah Kanan, Taman Midah Kiri, Taman Mutiara Barat, Taman Segar, Taynton View, Taman Connaught Utara, Taman Connaught Selatan, Bandar Tun Razak, Rumah Pangsa Sri Johor Cheras, Rumah Pangsa Sri Pulau Pinang Cheras, Rumah Pangsa Sri Sabah Cheras, Taman Ikan Emas, Rumah Pangsa Sri Melaka Cheras, Sri Permaisuri, Bandar Sri Permaisuri, Rumah Pangsa Sri Labuan Cheras, Sri Kota, Taman Mulia, Desa Tun Razak, Kampung Malaysia, Bandar Tasik Selatan, Pekan Sungai Besi, Kem Tentera, Taman Len Sen, Taman Bukit Cheras, Taman Bukit Anggerik, Taman Saujana Hijau, Taman Rimba Desa, Taman Wawasan, Taman Warisan, Chennah, Durian Tipus, Simpang Durian, Kampong Chennah, Pekan Titi, Sungai Muntoh, Kampong Seperi, Petaling, Kampong Gagu, Pertang, Jerang, Kampong Lakai, Pasoh 4, Pasoh 1, Simpang Pertang, Kampong Petaseh, Kampong Gelang, Lui Timur, Lui Muda, Lui Selatan, Pulapol Ayer Hitam, Ladang Ayer Hitam, Kampong Bahru Ayer Hitam, Lui Barat, Pasoh 3, Pasoh 2, Kampung Serampang Indah, Klawang, Peradong, Ladang Jelebu, Kampong Kampai, Kampung Kuala Klawang, Pekan Kuala Klawang, Kampong Kemin, Kampung Amar Penghulu, Jempol, Serting, Serting Ulu, Kampong Serting Tengah, Kampung Serting Ilir, Lubok Gadong, Mahsan Jaya, FELDA Raja Alias, Bandar Baru Serting Ilir, Kampong Geddes, Kampong Geddes Tengah, Ladang Sungai Sebaling, Bandar Seri Jempol, Palong, Palong 14, 15 & 16, Palong 8, Palong 12 & 13, Palong 7, Palong 9, 10 & 11, Palong 6, Palong 5, Palong 4, Palong 3, Jeram Padang, Ladang Bahau, Bukit Rokan Barat, Ladang Middleton, Ladang Kelpin, Ladang Bukit Pilah, Palong 2, Palong 1, Bahau, Kampong Bukit Perah, Kampong Batu Kikir, Kampong Lonek, Kuala Jempol, Kampung Kuala Kepis, Kampung Jambu Lapan, Taman ACBE, Pekan Bahau, Kampong Bakar Batu, Seremban, Lenggeng, Pekan Broga, Ulu Beranang, Kampong Daching, Kampong Rawa Ulu, Desa Sri Pantai, Pantai, Nilai, Batang Benar, Pekan Pajam, Kampung Gebok, Batu Sebelas, Kampong Bahru Mantin, Pekan Mantin, Kg Attap, Mantin Dalam, Bandar Baru Nilai, Lobak, Kg Lobak, Ulu Temiang, Jalan Manickavasagam, Kampong Nee Yan, Taman Temiang Jaya, Limbok, Jalan Yazid Ahmad, Jalan Han Hui Foong, Sikamat, Taman Paroi Jaya, Taman Jujur, Jalan Sikamat, Taman Desa Rhu, Ampangan, Medan Rahang, Kampong Gedong Lalang, Taman Datuk Shahbandar, Dusun Nyior, Kampong Jiboi, Kuala Pilah, Juasseh, Kampong Tengkek, Kampong Tapak, Kampong Sungai Jelutong, Kampong Padang Lebar, Kampong Terentang, Juasseh Tengah, Kampong Terusan, Pekan Juasseh, Kampong Gentam, Seri Menanti, Kampong Langkap, Kampong Ulu Bendol, Terachi, Kampong Gemetir, Kampong Ibol, Tanjong Ipoh, Kampung Gamin, Kampong Buyau, Sri Menanti, Kampung Sikai, Gunong Pasir, Senaling, Temaris, FELDA Kepis, Rembang Panas, Kampong Sungai Dua, Kampong Kuala Dioh, Sawah Lebar, Kampong Dioh, Tebat Kering, Pilah, Ampang Tinggi, Kampong Parit, Kampong Gemuroh, Jalan Yam Tuan, Tengku Besar, Bukit Temensu, Batang Pilah, Kampong Gachong, Seri Pilah, Johol, Kampong Kepis, Malan Baru, Dangi, Kampung Selaru, Inas, Kampong Padang Jual, Pekan Johol, Kuala Johol, Kampung Nuri, Ayer Mawang, Rasah, Labu, Jijan, Kampong Kondok, Tiroi, Labu Jaya, Kampung Gadong Jaya, Bukit Kepayang, Taman Permai, Jalan Kong Sang, Jalan Dato Bandar Tunggal, Jalan Lee Sam, Jalan Tuanku Munawir, Bukit Tembok, Taman Bukit Kaya, Seremban 2, Rahang, Rahang Timor, Pekan Rahang, Pekan Rasah, Kampong Bahru Rasah, Taman Bukit Chedang, Kampong Pondok, Jalan Tok Ungku, Kampong Datuk Mansor, Mambau, Desa Sri Mambau, Taman Sungai Ujong, Pekan Mambau, Rasah Jaya, Bukit Blossom, Seremban Jaya, Taman Rahang, Taman Seremban, Kampong Bahru Rahang, Senawang, Taman Seremban Jaya, Rembau, Paroi, Taman Satria, Taman Tuanku Jaafar, Taman Sri Permata, Kombok, Taman Tasik Jaya, Bukit Seri Senawang, Taman Kobena, Senawang Jaya, Taman Marida, Chembong, Ulu Pedas, Sepri, Kampong Rendah, Kampong Senama Ulu, Pekan Pedas, Kampong Pedas Tengah, Pekan Rembau, Mampong, Pilin, Kundor, Rantau, Kampong Sendayan, Sendayan, Taman Kelab Tuanku, Kampong Mambau, Kampong Bemban, Kuala Sawah, Kampong Sri Lalang, Kampong Sega, Pekan Sagga, Linsum, Kampong Siliau, Kota, Kampong Batu, Selemak, Kampong Bongek, Kampong Chengkau Ulu, Kampong Gadong, Kampong Kendong, Semerbok, Kampong Sawah Raja, Titian Bintangor, Astana Raja, Legong Ulu, Pekan Chengkau, Kampong Penajis, Kampong Pulau Mampat, Port Dickson, Chuah, Kampong Pachitan, Bukit Pelandok, Lukut, Kampong Jimah Baru, Bandar Spring Hill, Taman Indah Jaya, Hantar, Barang, Kuala Lukut, Sri Parit, Tanjong Gemok, Tumpang, Bagan Pinang, Ladang Atherton, Pekan Siliau, Ladang Bradwall, Sua Betong, Sunggala, Kampong Bagan Pinang, Si Rusa, Telok Kemang, Linggi, Kampong Pengkalan Durian, Pengkalan Kempas, Ladang Sengkang, Kampong Sungai Raya, Bandar Baru Sunggala, Sri Tanjung, Kampong Arab, Kampong Chokra, Pekan Port Dickson, Tampin, Gemas, FELDA Jelai 1 & 3, Pasir Besar, FELDA Pasir Besar, Kampong Ladang, Pekan Gemas, FELDA Jelai 2 & 4, Gemencheh, Sungai Kelamah, Gemencheh Lama, Gemencheh Bahru, Kampong Bahru Gedok, Gedok, Bukit Jalor, Kampong Mantai, Ladang Regent, Pekan Batang Melaka, Bukit Rotan Utara, Bukit Rokan, Kampong Rokan, Kampong Sungai Jerneh, Repah, Kampong Bahru Tampin, Pekan Tampin, Kampong Batu Belang, Keru, Tebong, Kampong Asahan, Taman Indah, Kuala Linggi, Tanjung Dahan, Sungai Baru Hilir, Kuala Sungai Baru, Telok Gong, Tanjung Bidara, Kampung Pulau, Lubok Redan, Sungai Baru Tengah, Pengkalan Balak, Pasir Gembor, Ayer Limau, Sungai Jerneh, Ramuan China Kechil, FELCRA Ramuan China Kechil, Ramuan China Besar, Kampung Lekok, Kampung Pinang, Lendu, Pekan Masjid Tanah, Durian Daun, Sungai Baru Hulu, Pekan Lendu, Taboh Naning, Cherana Puteh, Berisu, Batang Melekek, Ayer Paabas, Alor Gajah, Rembia, Pekan Alor Gajah, Kelemak, Jelatang, Kampung Tebat, Pekan Rembia, Gadek, Bukit Sebang, Pekan Pulau Sebang, Kuala Ina, Arongan, Tanjung Rimau, Padang Sebang, Paya Datuk, Pegoh, Ganun, Pekan Gadek, Machap Jaya, FELDA Hutan Percha, Solok Menggong, Machap Baru, Ayer Pasir, Machap Umbor, Melaka Pindah, Durian Tunggal, Parit Melana, Belimbing Dalam, Pekan Durian Tunggal, Gangsa, Simpang Tebong, Pekan Selandar, Bukit Sedanan, Batang Melaka, Jus, Bukit Senggeh, Pekan Nyalas, FELDA Bukit Senggeh, Pondok Batang, Ladang Bukit Asahan, Pekan Asahan, Tangga Batu, Bukit Terendak, Pekan Sungai Udang, Paya Rumput Jaya, Bertam Hulu, Pantai Kundor, Ayer Salak, Paya Luboh, Pantai Puteri, Pengkalan Perigi, Pengkalan Lanjut, Sungai Lereh, Paya Rumput, Hujong Padang, Kerubong, Pantai Cheng, Cheng Perdana, Cheng, Tanjung Minyak, Kelebang, Seberang Gajah, Bukit Rambai, Kelebang Besar, Pulau Gadong, Pekan Kelebang Besar, Kelebang Kechil, Hang Tuah Jaya, Pengkalan Batu, Bachang Baru, Rumpun Bahagia, Peringgit, Peringgit Jaya, Bukit Palah, Seri Siantan, Bukit Piatu, Ayer Keroh, Sungai Putat, Kampung Ayer Keroh, Ayer Keroh Heights, Taman Kerjasama, Taman Bukit Melaka, Taman Muzaffar Shah, Kampung Tun Razak, Bukit Katil, Bukit Beruang, Bukit Baru Dalam, Paya Ikan, Bukit Pulau, Kampungku Sayang, Taman Tun Rahah, Kampung Bukit Katil, Ayer Molek, Pengkalan Minyak, Tambak Paya, Kg Ayer Molek, Bukit Lintang, Kandang, Tiang Dua, Paya Dalam, Kota Melaka, Kesidang, Taman Merdeka, Batu Berendam, Taman Melaka Baru, Malim Jaya, Taman Asean, Bakar Batu, Kota Laksamana, Kesidang Indah, Tun Perak, Kampung Enam, Pengkalan Rama Pantai, Kenanga Seksyen 1, Kenanga Seksyen 2, Kenanga Seksyen 3, Tengkera Pantai, Tengkera, Kampung Morten, Pengkalan Rama, Kampung Hulu, Kampung Belanda, Taman Kota Laksamana, Duyong, Pengkalan Rama Tengah, Kg Padang Semabok, Semabok, Perigi Hang Tuah, Seri Duyong, Bandar Hilir, Bukit China, Bukit Gedong, Bandar Kaba, Bandar Hilir Tengah, Lorong Panjang, Kg Bandar Hilir, Melaka Raya, Perkampungan Portugis, Ujong Pasir Pantai, Telok Mas, Ujong Pasir Darat, Kampung Ujong Pasir, Padang Temu, Alai, Kg Telok Mas, Pernu, Jasin, Pondok Kempas, Ayer Kangkong, Kesang Tua, Kesang Jaya, Ayer Barok, Taman Maju, Seri Bemban, Tehel, Rim, Kemendor, Seri Kesang, Kelubi, Kg Rim, Bukit Katong, Ladang Diamond, Simpang Bekoh, Chohong, Chinchin, Simpang Kerayong, Serkam, Bukit Tembakau, Umbai, Anjung Batu, Serkam Darat, Pulai, Serkam Pantai, Tedong, Merlimau, Ayer Merbau, Jasin Lalang, Merlimau Utara, Merlimau Pasir, Sempang, Pengkalan Samak, Permatang Serai, Sungai Rambai, Seri Mendapat, Sebatu, Parit Putat, Parit Perawas, Buloh Kasap, Mensudot Lama, Balai Badang, Palong Timor, Sepang Loi, Mensudot Pindah, Awat, Pekan Gemas Bahru, Gomali, Tambang, Paya Lang, Ladang Sungai Muar, Kuala Paya, Bandar Buloh Kasap Utara, Bandar Buloh Kasap Selatan, Gelang Chinchin, Sepinang, Jementah, Gemas Baru, Fortrose, Sungai Senarut, Bandar Batu Anam, Batu Anam, Bandan, Welch, Paya Jakas, Bandar Jementah Barat, Bandar Jementah Timor, Bandar Jementah Tengah, Bandar Jementah Selatan, Kampong Bukit Tunggal, Gemereh, Berata, Jalan Kolam Air, Sungai Kapeh, Jalan Gemereh, Genuang, Genuang Selatan, Kampong Abdullah Utara, Sekijang, Pemanis, Pemanis 1, Pemanis 2, Bumbun, Sulir, Pekan Jabi, Tahang Rimau, Jalan Buloh Kasap, Kampong Mengkudu, FELDA Medoi, Gubah, Kampong Abdullah Selatan, Kemelah, Segamat Baru, Ladang Segamat, FELDA Kemelah, Redong, Chuan Moh San, Kampong Melayu Raya, Bukit Siput, Pekan Bukit Siput Utara, Pogoh, Ladang Labis Bahru, Pekan Bukit Siput Selatan, Labis, Tenang, Kampong Redong, Pekan Ayer Panas, Ladang Labis Utara, Bandar Labis Timor, Bandar Labis Tengah, FELDA Tenang, Sawah Bahru, Tenang Station, Ladang Bukit Dato, Chemplak Barat, Chemplak, Bekok, Bandar Labis Selatan, Bandar Labis Barat, Sungai Karas, Kampong Panchajaya, Kampong Kudong, Ladang Kempas, Kampong Bahru Bekok Barat, Kampong Bahru Bekok Tengah, Kampong Bahru Bekok Timor, Bandar Bekok, Ladang Getah Eldred Bekok, Johor Labis 'A', Chaah Barat, Bandar Chaah Utara, Bandar Chaah Tengah, Bandar Chaah Selatan, Kampong Jawa Chaah, Chaah Timor, Chan Wing, Ladang Gerchang, Desa Temu Jodoh, Perling, Pagoh, Bukit Kepong, Bandar Bukit Kepong, FELCRA Paya Kepar, Ma'okil, Lenga Utara, Lenga Selatan, Lenga, Kampong Gombang, Liang Batu, Lenga Road, Bandar Pagoh Utara, Bandar Pagoh Selatan, Paya Redan, Kampong Teratai, Sri Ledang, FELDA Sri Jaya, Durian Chondong, Kundang Ulu, Ladang Serampang, Parit Raja, Bandar Grisek Timor, Grisek, Kampong Kundang Ulu, Ladang Nordanal, Kebun Bahru, Bukit Pasir, Samasih, Kampong Raja, Bandar Panchor, Jorak, Tanjong Selabu, Pergam, Sungai Raya, Pekan Bukit Pasir Barat, Pekan Bukit Pasir Utara, Pekan Bukit Pasir Selatan, Ladang Craigielea, Panjang Sari, Bukit Treh, Ledang, Gambir, Kampong Babok, Sengkang, Sawah Ring, Parit Kassan, Parit Bilah, Pekan Bukit Gambir Barat, Pekan Bukit Gambir Timor, Pekan Bukit Gambir Utara, Ladang Sagil, Bandar Sagil Luar, Sagil, Kampong Sri Jaya, Parit Zing, Tangkak, Asahan Relau, Kampong Bahru Bekoh, Payamas, Jalan Sialang, Bandar Tangkak Utara, Bandar Tangkak Timor, Bandar Tangkak Selatan, Bandar Tangkak Barat, Pengkalan Besar, Kampong Solok, Bukit Banjar, Bandar Tangkak, Taman Tangkak Jaya, Serom, Blemang, Paya Kepong, Telok Rimba, Pekan Bukit Kangkar, Bukit Kangkar, Serom Darat, Serom Lima, Serom Lapan, Serom Baroh, Bandar Serom, Kesang Tasek, Bandar Sungai Mati, Kampong Pantai Layang, Parit Bunga, Kesang, Parit Pajar, Tanjong Gading, Tanjong Agas Utara, Tanjong Agas Selatan, Bakri, Bentayan, Jalan Ismail, Parit Beting, Sabak Awor, Parit Tiram, Bandar Timor, Jalan Daud Timor, Jalan Daud Barat, Sungai Abong Tengah, Sungai Abong Baru, Bandar Barat, Simpang Jeram, Jalan Sakeh, Temenggong Ahmad Dalam, Sungai Abong, Jalan Haji Abdullah, Haji Abdullah Selatan, Jeram Tengah, Bukit Batu, Kampong Ulu, Sri Tanjong, Kampong Sungai Abong, Bukit Naning, Pekan Bukit Bakri Timor, Pekan Bukit Bakri Barat, Parit Zain, Ayer Manis, Ayer Hitam, Kampong Parit Tengah, Parit No 5, Parit No 3, Muar, Maharani, Tanjong Selatan, Jalan Khalidi, Temenggong Ahmad Selatan, Parit Prupok Timor, Parit Prupok Barat, Parit Keroma, Parit Bakar Darat, Parit Bakar, Parit Unas, Parit Pinang Seribu, Parit Samsu, Sungai Balang, Parit Kassim, Bukit Mor, Parit Nawee, Bandar Parit Jawa Utara, Bandar Parit Jawa Selatan, Parit Jawa, Parit Tengah, Parit Jamil Darat, Parit Pechah, Sungai Sudah, Sungai Balang Besar, Sungai Balang Darat, Sarang Buaya Darat, Parit Yusof, Sarang Buaya Laut, Kampong Parit Bulat, Parit Shafiee, Parit Sulong, Semerah, Parit Nibong Darat, Separap, Kampong Batu Puteh, Bandar Semerah, Lubok, Parit Kuda, Parit Besar, Gambut, Kampong Bintang, Mampan, Peserai, Jalan Jenang, Jalan Engan, Panchoran Ayer, Kampong Pantai Barat, Kampong Pantai Timor, Kampong Pantai, Parit Maimon, Parit Puasa, Sri Medan, Parit Gantong, Parit Jayos, Parit Dayong, Kampong Sri Pasir, Sri Medan Barat, Parit Warijo, Parit Karjan, Bandar Parit Sulong, Sentang Batu, Parit Othman, Parit Haji Siraj, Parit Betong, Parit Abdul Rahman, Bandar Sri Medan, Sri Medan Timor, Yong Peng, Sri Sepakat, Lam Lee, Ladang Chaah, Ladang Yong Peng Bhg 'B', Kangkar Bahru, Yong Peng Utara, Bandar Yong Peng Utara, Bandar Yong Peng Tengah, Bandar Yong Peng Selatan, Yong Peng Selatan, Ladang Yong Peng, Kampong Manong, Taman Jelita, Semarang, Parit Haji Yusof, Sri Mendapat, Kampong Haji Ghaffar, Asam Bubok, Sungai Rambot, Ayer Hitam Selatan, Ayer Hitam Utara, Bandar Ayer Hitam Barat, Bandar Ayer Hitam Timor, Parit Semarang, Parit Quarry, Sabak Uni, Parit Simpang Tengah, Sri Gading, Parit Yaani, Parit Jambi, Parit Selulun, Bukit Rahmat, Tongkang Pechah, Bandar Tongkang Pechah, Parit Buloh, Pekan Parit Yaani, Kampong Bahru Parit Yaani, Parit Yob, Broleh Utara, Broleh Tengah, Bukit Pasir Timor, Taman Sri Saga, Broleh Selatan, Bandar Sri Gading, Tanjong Sembrong, Bandar Parit Raja Utara, Bandar Parit Raja Selatan, Pintas Puding, Parit Jelutong, Pintas Raya, Sri Gading Estate, Parit Kampong Baru, Parit Sri Pandan, Parit Lapis Sempadan, Parit Sri Menanti, Batu Pahat, Penggaram, Parit Bilal, Linau, Bakau Chondong, Bakau Chondong Barat, Kampong Kenangan Dato' Onn, Gunong Soga, Kampong Merdeka Timor, Kampong Merdeka Barat, Jalan Zabedah Barat, Jalan Abu Bakar, Jalan Zabedah Timor, Simpang Rantai, Bentara Luar, Taman Soga, Kampung Istana, Taman Murni, Senggarang, Minyak Beku, Petani Kechik, Banang, Sungai Ayam, Sungai Suloh, Koris, Parit Tariman, Parit Kadir, Parit Kemang, Sungai Lurus, Bandar Senggarang Barat, Bandar Senggarang Timor, Taman Senggarang, Rengit, Rejo Sari, Perpat, Sri Ladang, Sri Merlong, Belahan Tampok, Sungai Merlong, Bandar Rengit Selatan, Bandar Rengit Utara, Punggor, Simpang Renggam, Machap, Sri Desa, Rancangan FELDA Ayer Hitam, Sri Lalang, Pekan Machap, Kampong Ulu Benut, Bandar Simpang Renggam Utara, Bandar Simpang Renggam Timor, FELCRA Simpang Renggam, Jalan Benut, Ladang Nenas, Layang-Layang, Ladang Tun Dr. Ismail, Kampong Chokro, Kampong Sahari, Senda, Bandar Renggam, Sembrong, Chemara, Bandar Layang-Layang Selatan, Bandar Layang-Layang Utara, Renggam, Ladang Southern Malay, FELDA Layang-Layang, Kluang, Mengkibol, Ladang Coronation, Pekan Sri Lalang Barat, Pekan Sri Lalang Timor, Ladang Mengkibol, Mengkibol Barat, Mengkibol Timor, Taman Kurnia, Bakar Sampah, Lambak, Yap Tau Sah, Yap Tau Sah Timor, Jalan Mersing, Jalan Johor Tenggara, Kluang Layang, Ladang Lambak, Ladang Elaeis, Kampung Gunung Lambak, Taman Megah, Kampong Paya Timor, Kampong Paya Barat, Kampong Melayu Timor, Ladang Bukit Benut, Mahkota, Kampong Melayu Timor II, Kampong Melayu I, Kampong Melayu II, Taman Lian Seng, Haji Manan, Mesjid Lama, Bandar Tengah, Taman Ilham, Dorset, Taman Berlian, Jalan Hospital, Taman Suria, Indah Jaya, Sri Tengah, Klebang, Kampong Melayu Paloh, Ladang Paloh, Bandar Paloh Utara, Bandar Paloh Selatan, Kali Malaya, Bukit Paloh, Ladang Landak, Ladang Kekayaan, Chamek, Consolidated Eastern Plantations, Tereh Selatan, Pengkalan Tereh, Ladang Pamol, Pekan Kampong Gajah, FELDA Kahang Barat, Kahang, Kangkar Kahang Timor, Kangkar Kahang Barat, FELDA Kahang Timor, FELDA Ulu Dengar, Sri Lambak, Sungai Sayong, FELDA Bukit Tongkat, FELDA Ulu Belitong, FELDA Ulu Pengeli, Mersing, Padang Endau, Bandar Endau Utara, Bandar Endau Selatan, Kampung Hubong, Kampung Hubong Barat, Rancangan FELDA Endau, Penyabong, Tanjong Resang, Ayer Papan, Tanjong Genting, Mersing Kanan, Jalan Endau, Jalan Abdullah, Sawah Dato', Tenglu, Tanah Abang, Kampong Punan, Kampong Peta, Tenggaroh, Bandar Utara, Jalan Jamaluang, FELDA Nitar 2, FELDA Nitar 1, Pejabat Kerajaan, Pekan Mersing Kechil, Sri Pantai, Bandar Jamaluang Timor, Jamaluang Timor, Jamaluang, RISDA Sungai Ambat, FELDA Tenggaroh 5, FELDA Tenggaroh 3, FELDA Tenggaroh 6, FELDA Tenggaroh 4, FELDA Tenggaroh 2, FELDA Tenggaroh 1, Pulau Sibu, Pulau Tinggi, Pulau Besar, Pulau Aur, Pulau Pemanggil, Tenggara, Panti, Bandar Tenggara Utara, FELDA Pengeli Timor, Sungai Sibol, Linggiu, Ulu Sungai Johor, Pelepah Valley, Kampong Lukut, Kota Tinggi Utara, Bandar Tenggara Selatan, Kota Jaya Utara, Kota Jaya Selatan, Kampong Kelantan, FELDA Sungai Sayong, FELDA Bukit Besar, FELDA Pasir Raja, FELDA Bukit Ramun, Sungai Telor, Sungai Johor, Sungai Kemang Selatan, Jalan Johor, Kota Tinggi Selatan, Ladang R.E.M., Jalan Kota Tinggi, Kampung Baru Sungai Redan, Kota Tinggi, Sedili, Tunjuk Laut, Tenggaroh Selatan, Sedili Pantai, Sedili Besar, Sedili Tengah, Sedili Darat, Mawai, Aping Barat, Aping Timor, Sedili Kechil, Bukit Easter, Wah Hah I, Wah Hah II, Johor Lama, Lok Heng Barat, Lok Heng Timur, Lok Heng Selatan, Kota Kechil Timor, Kota Kechil Barat, Bukit Kerajaan, Jalan Mawai, Tembioh, FELDA Pasak, Air Tawar 3, Air Tawar 2, Pekan Telok Sengat, Telok Sengat, Pengerang, Penawar, Air Tawar 1, Air Tawar 4, Papan Timor, Bandar Mas, Air Tawar 5, Semenchu, Sungai Layau, Tanjong Buai, Tanjung Surat, Tanjong Surat, Tanjong Serindit, Adela, Sening, Bukit Keledang, Ladang Santi, Kampong Pasir Gogok, Kampong Sungai Kapal, Lepau, Sungai Rengit, Pekan Sungai Rengit, Telok Ramunia, Tebrau, Tiram, Ulu Tiram Barat, Bandar Ulu Tiram Barat, Bandar Ulu Tiram Tengah, Bandar Ulu Tiram Utara, Bandar Ulu Tiram Selatan, Ara Cemerlang, Ulu Tiram Timor, Nam Heng, Kong Kong, Kampung Cahaya Baru, Kota Masai, Kota Delima, Tanjong Langsat, Tanjong Kopok, Taman Pasir Puteh, Desa Jaya, Cahaya Masai, Lembah Ehsan, Lanjut Cemerlang, Cemerlang Tropika, Kota Pulasan, Puteri Wangsa, FELDA Ulu Tebrau, Maju Jaya, Nipah Delima, Puteri Wangsa 1, Mount Austin, Bertam Delima, Pekan Pandan, Kangkar Tebrau Baru, Kangkar Tebrau, Ladang Tebrau, Taman Gembira, Bukit Jaya, Rumbia Daya, Nibong Daya, Puteri Wangsa 2, Pelangi Gaya, Pinang Sagu, Setia Enau, Bukit Mutiara, Desa Tebrau, Pasir Gudang, Johor Jaya, Sri Amar, Belantik, Pandan, Taman Molek, Johor Jaya Barat, Johor Jaya Selatan, Johor Jaya Timor, Johor Jaya Tengah, Johor Jaya Utara, Bandar Plentong Utara, Bandar Plentong Selatan, Taman Saujana, Plentong, Masai, Keembong, Seri Alam, Molek Harmoni, Tasek Seri Alam, Permas, Permas Jaya, Senibong, Taman Kota Puteri, Kampong Telok Jawa, Rinting Cendana, Pelabuhan Pasir Gudang, Taman Air Biru, Rumah Pangsa PKENJ, Permas 2, Taman Megah Ria, Rinting Meranti, Rinting Balau, Nusa Scientex, Taman Bukit Dahlia, Bandar Baru Permas Jaya, Kampong Plentong Baru, Bandar Masai Utara, Bandar Masai Tengah, Bandar Masai Selatan, Johor Bahru, Larkin, Bandar Baru Uda, Uda Malinja, Jalan Datin Halimah, Kampong Ungku Mohsin, Kampong Melayu Majedee I, Kampong Melayu Majedee II, Stulang Baru, Sepakat, Taman Baru, Rumah Pangsa Larkin, Larkin Jaya, Taman Majedee, Taman Kebun Teh, Taman Melodies, Taman Abad, Abad Jaya 1, Taman Skudai Kanan, Kampong Larkin Jaya, Abad Jaya 2, Uda Mahsuri, Ulu Ayer Molek, Kebun Teh, Stulang, Majedee Bahru, Sulaiman Menteri, Setanggi, Sri Tebrau 1, Pelangi, Kampong Wadi Hana, Bukit Senyum, Sri Pelangi, Taman Sri Setia, Sri Tebrau 2, Bukit Chagar, Desa Majidi, Belibis Perling, Pengkalan Rinting, Skudai Kiri, Sungai Danga, Bukit Serene, Tarom, Nong Chik, Tambatan, Gertak Merah, Yahya Awal, Ngee Heng, Kampong Pahang, Camar Perling, Pekaka Perling, Rawa Perling, Bukit Indah, Nusa Indah, Tampoi Indah, Simbang Perling, Uda Bestari, Kempas, Lembah Kempas, Jalan Tampoi, Taman Siantan, Taman Johor, Desa Rahmat, Pekan Tampoi, Bukit Mewah, Bukit Kempas, Iskandar Puteri, Skudai, Jaya Mas, Selesa Jaya, Sri Sinding, Impian Emas, Sri Skudai, Bandar Skudai Barat, Bandar Skudai Tengah, Bandar Skudai Timor, Hang Tuah, Laksamana TUTA, Nakhoda TUTA, Flat Perkasa 'A' TUTA, Taman Damai Jaya, Desa Skudai, Hang Jebat, Perwira TUTA, Hulubalang TUTA, Skudai Utara, Flat Perkasa 'B' TUTA, Bukit Impian, Kota Iskandar, Kangkar Pulai, Pertanian, Kebangsaan, Lima Kedai, Gelang Patah Utara, Sungai Melayu, Tebing Runtoh, Kampong Pendas, Gelang Patah Selatan, Tiram Duku, Tanjong Kupang, Kampong Pok Besar, Tanjong Adang, Penyiaran, Kemuliaan, Perubatan, Pulai Indah, Pulai Utama, Sri Pulai Perdana, Mutiara Rini, Sri Pulai, Kulai, Bukit Permai, Murni Jaya, Sedenak Utara, Sedenak Selatan, Ladang Fraser, Pekan Sengkang, FELDA Taib Andak, Ladang Swee Lam, Ladang Kelan, Bandar Kulai Utara, Kampong Pertanian, Ulu Choh, Bandar Ulu Choh, FELDA Bukit Batu, Ayer Bemban, Midland Kulai Young, Pekan Kelapa Sawit Barat, Pekan Kelapa Sawit Tengah, Pekan Kelapa Sawit Timor, Kampong Sri Paya, Kota Kulai, Taman Puteri, Senai, Universiti Teknologi Mara, UTM, Saleng, Bandar Senai Utara, Bandar Senai Tengah, Bandar Senai Selatan, Dawani, Senai Baru, Seelong, Bandar Kulai Barat, Bandar Kulai Tengah, Bandar Kulai Timor, Ladang Kulai Besar, Lengkongan, Taman Selatan, Benut, Lubok Sipat, Permatang Sepam, Parit Betak, Permatang Duku, Parit Mansor, Parit Ismail, Sri Jawa, Simpang Jawa, Benut, Bandar Benut Utara, Bandar Benut Selatan, Tampok, Pulai Sebatang, Kampong Parit Kahar, Ayer Baloi, Bandar Ayer Baloi Selatan, Bandar Ayer Baloi Utara, Kampong Parit Haji Karim, Parit Sikom, Sungai Trus, Pontian Besar Kiri, Jalan Alsagoff, Pantai Bandar Pontian, Pegawai, Jalan Taib, Bakek, Parit Semerah, Parit Mesjid, Parit Mesjid Darat, Tanjung Piai, Pekan Nanas, Parit Kudus, Tanjong Ayer Hitam, Ladang South Malaya, Melayu Raya, Kampong Lubok Sawah, Tenggayon, Pengkalan Raja Pontian, Bandar Pekan Nenas Barat, Bandar Pekan Nenas Timor, Bandar Pekan Nenas Tengah, Bandar Pekan Nenas Selatan, Kukup, Jalan Rimba Terjun, Kampong Duku, Kampong Rimba Terjun, Parit Hj. Ismail, Rambah, Parit Rambai, Peradin, Telok Kerang, Penerok, Sungai Boh, Bandar Permas Kechil, Permas Kechil, Serkat, Andek Mori, Ladang Sungai Burong, Alor, Kumbang, Punti, Bahagia, Banggok Kambing, Besi, Besin, Jali, Sanai, Sawa, Senu, Temak, Batu 14 - 16, Batu Menunggul, Becah, Bubus, Jagong, Jambul, Kerek, Mak Inson, Murai, Sekechong, Seni, Tegur, Tok Aji, Kering, Kubong, Kudong, Chekong, Chelong, Umar, Doket, Gelong Gajah, Guar Stesyen, Darus, Hujong Keton, Kayu Tiga, Kebun 4 Relong, Kerkau, Kecik, Kongsi Tujuh, Mawa, Rimau, Anak Gajah, Teradan, Teradeh, Lanchok Bunjai, Lang Merah, Linchan, Mahawangsa, Manggol Tambak Luar, Manggul Tambak, Menja Pahit, Nam Dam, Kasak, Pusing, Temucut, Tok Sedan, Nedam, Sulaiman, Penyarom, Tai, Aziz, Hussain, Seberang Pendang, Simpang Tiga Tobiar, Sukamari, Ma, Siput Dalam, Berolah, Radin, Telok Wang, Kera, La, Sek, Prok, Wan Lah, Wat Siam Padang Pelian, POKOK SENA, Alor China, Atong, Baru Naka, Batu 11, Lala, Kiau, Telaga Emas, Teriak, Empa, Ga, Gua Ginu, Kelut, Kepala Bendang, Khotan, Kiew, Kolon, Kolot, Kuala Lanjut, Kuang Buang, Kenyeng, Laha, Lahar Tunjang, Lamdam, Lamdin, Lanjut Malau, Lubok Batu, Machang Kudong, Minangkabau, Melayu, Nawa, Pelanduk Jatuh, Pokok Pauh, Pulau Bidin, Senara, Tanjong Musang, Telok Jamat, Dam, Kun, Tuba, SERDANG, Badlishah, Batu 12, Bukit Aping, Chong Meng, Jermai, Ayer Putih, Leret, Medan, Sungai Taka, Paya Salak, Pekan Lama, Sembilan Relong, Seribu Relong, Itam, Kasai, Salleh, Taka, Tegas, Telok Kelian, Terap Dalam, Balong Ayam, Selayang, Nami, Seri Dacing, Batu Seketul, Belantek, Man, Tebal, Kamuning, Kit, Sedau, Sejok, Chepir, Chong, Danglau, Gubir, Jurong, Kemelong, Kota Aur, Kuala Beris, Kubang Kesom, Landai, Jerai, Lutang, Merbau Kudong, Namek, Paya Terendam, Perangin, Sedu, Kap, Senam, Piring, Teloi, Titi Semang, SUNGAI PETANI, Abbas, Air Mendidih, Asi, Bakar Bata, Tikam, Belachan, Belakang, Sekolah, Menengah, Taman Sungai Lalang, Blok Hospital, Pengkalan Lebai Man, Ceruk, Cik Bema, Dakwah, Depan Balai, Gelugur, Gok, Hassan, Ibrahim, Ismail, Mangon, Mehat, Rashid, Safar, Wahab, Huda, Jurung, Kendudong, Makau, Klinik, Kongsi, Sidim, Sin, Mencipta, Lima Puluh, Relong, Kiab, Layar, Dedung, Kedundong, Nakhoda, Pa In, Pak Ibrahim, Empat, Nahu, Penggir, Him, Lebai Man, Pinggir, Hawai, Sepom, Tiga, Tok Daud, Garden, Redang, Sebelas, Soh, Serungkup, Sharif, Tukang, Sin Heng, Songkia, Songkiar, Sungkup, Para, Surkam, Mandi, Tanah Seribu, Bukit Lembu, Tasek Apong, Wan, Tengkorak, Tepi Sungai, Mandi Lembu, Munah, Acheh, Batas Ubi, 22 1/2, Tumbuh, Kepala 10, Sedaka, Km 32, Raga, Kubu 10, Boi, Perigi, Serantang, Serentang, Alim, Rendang Pasir, Ruat, Selengkoh, Serong, Air Hitam, Lim, Pagar, Tongkang, Mat Acheh, Limau Dalam, Tohor, Atas A, Atas B, Hujong pasir, Pindah, Kerinchi, Lembah Jaya, Setia Jaya, Batu Muda, Desa Aman, Cheras Baru, Melayu Tambahan, Dato' Mufti, Shuib, Tambahan, Indah Permai, Tengah Ampang, Tunku, Datuk Keramat, Padang Balang, Medan Wira, Perwira, Sungai Mulia, Dato' Haji Abdul Karim, Baru Air Panas, Sungai Merali, Lembah Gombak, Batu Muda Tambahan, Wira Jaya, Semarak, Kassipilay, Loke Yew, Benting Segambut, Indah, Bandar Dalam, Puah, Seri Batu, Delima, Perumahan, Campuran, Api, Besut, Amir, Baru Batu Tumboh, Beris Panggong, Gertak Seratus, Kayu Kelat, Jerteh, Lampu, Nail, Padang Baloh, Jereteh, Pak Kiang, Pengkalan Nyireh, Wakaf Kubor, Air Jerneh, Semanyor, Batu 9, Ibok, Air Puteh, Penunjuk, Dusun Nyior, Fikri, Geliga, Gong Pauh, Kubang Kurus, Labohan, Lot Seri Jaya, Mak, Chili, Pasir Minal, Berenjut, Cicar, Pondok Limau, Pulau Tempurung, Pasir Gajah, Titian Berayong, Tuan, Yak Yah, Alor Kiambang, Basung, Batu 24, Binjai Kertas, Gemuruh, Nenas, Tok Bat, Butut, Ceting, Chapu, Dura, Durian Bador, Gaong, Gerdong, Hulu Sat, Tanjung Putat, Kemat, Kepah, Akub, Jeneris, Menjing, Ping, Por, Pueh, Lubuk Pait, Nasi Dingin, Setebu, Dula, Pelata, Simpul, Payang Kayu, Pelandan, Pulau Kudat, Rahmat, Sekayu, Berua, Tajin, Tanjong Baru, Tanjung Baru, Temir, Tengkawang, Teris, Bintang, Lawit, Kuala dungun, Kuala Dungun, Baharu Serada, Ayer Lilih, Ku, Mudin, Tuan Muda, Bangsal, Bari Besar, Pusu Tiga, Seberang Takir, Tetambah, Batu 13, Burok, Bawah Atas Tol, Beladau, Sukai, Batu Puteh, Chempaka, Chendering, Depu, Kubang Jambu, Petiti, Seraman, Tadok, Beng, Ris, Cerang Gajah, Che Long, Daik, Dalam Bata, Dato Penglima Perang, Burong, Guling, Duyung, Haji Tahir, Kedai, Getang, Benjak, Benjok, Kuin 1, Kuin 2, Pak Maseh, Pipit, Sentol, Tok Nasek, Guntong Luar, Hiliran, Binjai Besar, Parit Gali, Hujung Tanjung, Imam Lapar, Jail, Kayu Arang, Kebor, Kesom, Che Nordin, Haji Hussin, Bekah, Pasar, Ibai, Bujok, Buyong, Jertih, Jela, Tepak, Hospital, Mengabang, Sheikh Ibrahim, Sihat, Titian, Lerek, Atap Zing, Dato Amar, Ebeng, Feri, Mohd, Su, Lebai Salleh, Megat Husin, Panglima Perang, Makam Lama, Maras, Batu Burok, Medan Cengal, Lekar, Mengadang, Merbau Patah, Midin, Ujib, Katak, Pa, Tijah, Tuyu, Sungai Kiat, Tuan Sulong, Pancur Kuin, Haji Kasim, 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Conceptual Marketing Corporation - PETROFILM.COM Oslo April 2022  апрель 2022 г. 2022 年 4 月 آوریل 2022  EMPATHY RESPECT DIGNITYANALYSIS, INFORMATIONS FROM A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE طلاعات تجزیه و تحلیل از یک چشم انداز اروپاییعزت احترام به همدلی یکپارچه سازیتجزیه و تحلیل ، اطلاعات از یک چشم انداز اروپاییEMPATHIE RESPECTEER WAARDIGHEIDANALYSE, INFORMATIE VANUIT EEN EUROPEES PERSPECTIEFEMPATHIE RESPECT DIGNITÉANALYSE, INFORMATIONS D'UNE PERSPECTIVE EUROPÉENNE EMPATÍA RESPETO DIGNIDADANÁLISIS, INFORMACIONES CON PERSPECTIVA DE EUROPAСОБСТВЕННОСТЬ УВАЖЕНИЕ ДОСТОИНСТВА АНАЛИЗ ИНФОРМАЦИИ С ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ ИЗ ЕВРОПЫ 誠信尊重尊嚴 分析,來自歐洲的信息 Welcome!Herzlich willkommen! Bienvenido! добро пожаловать!  ようこそ! Bienvenue! 歡迎 أهلا بك  The Grand European Plain It stretches from the Pyrenees Mountains and the French coast of the Bay of Biscay in the West to the Russian Ural Mountains in the East.EUROPE ЕВРОПА603.8 Million people - 603,8 миллиона человек - 6.038億人 歐洲 اروپا CLICK MAP PLAY EUROPEAN ANTHEMCLICK FLAG PLAY EUROPEAN UNIONThe European Union: 445 MillionCLICK EFTA LOGO FOR VIDEOThe European Free Trade Association EFTA: 13.6 MillionCLICK FLAG FOR RUSSIA BELARUSThe Russian Federation West of Ural: 101.6 Million CLICK FLAG FOR BREXIT VIDEOThe United Kingdom: 66.6 Million THE UNITED STATES Department of Justice weekly news update.United States Leads Seizure of One of the World’s Largest Hacker Forums and Arrests Administrator04/12/2022 12:00 AM EDTThe Department of Justice today announced the seizure of the RaidForums website, a popular marketplace for cybercriminals to buy and sell hacked data, and unsealed criminal charges against RaidForums’ founder and chief administrator, Diogo Santos Coelho, 21, of Portugal. Coelho was arrested in the United Kingdom on Jan. 31, at the United States’ request and remains in custody pending the resolution of his extradition proceedings. Physician Partners of America to Pay 24.5 Million to Settle Allegations of Unnecessary Testing, Improper Remuneration to Physicians and a False Statement in Connection with COVID-19 Relief Funds04/12/2022 12:00 AM EDTPhysician Partners of America LLC PPOA, headquartered in Tampa, Florida, its founder, Rodolfo Gari, and its former chief medical officer, Dr. Abraham Rivera, have agreed to pay 24.5 million to resolve allegations that they violated the False Claims Act by billing federal healthcare programs for unnecessary medical testing and services, paying unlawful remuneration to its physician employees and making a false statement in connection with a loan obtained through the Small Business Administration’s SBA Paycheck Protection Program PPP. Husband and Wife Arrested for Export Control Violations, Wire Fraud, Tax Fraud and Making False Statements04/12/2022 12:00 AM EDTA Texas man and woman were arrested today in Helotes on criminal charges related to the husband’s involvement in alleged export violations and both of their alleged involvement in a scheme to defraud a research and development company R&D Company that provided services to industrial and government clients in the United States and abroad. U.S. Citizen Who Conspired to Assist North Korea in Evading Sanctions Sentenced to Over Five Years and Fined 100,00004/12/2022 12:00 AM EDTA U.S. Citizen who conspired to provide services to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea DPRK or North Korea, including technical advice on using cryptocurrency and blockchain technology to evade sanctions, was sentenced to 63 months in prison after pleading guilty to conspiracy to violate the International Emergency Economic Powers Act IEEPA. Assistant Attorney General Kristen Clarke Announces Consent Decree with City of Springfield, Massachusetts04/13/2022 12:00 AM EDTGood morning. I am joined by United States Attorney Rachael Rollins, Springfield Mayor Domenic Sarno and Springfield Police Superintendent Cheryl Clapprood. South Florida Bookkeeper Sentenced to Over 12 Years in Federal Prison for Support of International Enterprise that Operated Sexually Exploitive “Child Modeling” Websites04/13/2022 12:00 AM EDTA Florida woman was sentenced today to 151 months in federal prison, followed by three years of supervised release, for her work for and support of subscription-based sexually exploitative “child modeling” websites. The court also ordered the defendant to forfeit more than 2.2 million, as well as real property located in Weston, Florida. Pharmacy Owner Sentenced to Prison for Health Care Fraud04/13/2022 12:00 AM EDTA New York woman was sentenced today to 78 months in prison for defrauding health care programs, including more than 6.5 million from Medicare Part D plans and Medicaid drug plans. Russian Legislator and Two Staff Members Charged with Conspiring to Have U.S. Citizen Act as an Illegal Agent of the Russian Government in the United States04/14/2022 12:00 AM EDTThree citizens of the Russian Federation Russia are charged in an indictment, which was unsealed today, with conspiring to use an agent of Russia in the United States without prior notice to the Attorney General, conspiring to violate U.S. Sanctions, and conspiring to commit visa fraud. Associate Attorney General Vanita Gupta, Recipient of the 2022 Honorable Charles R. Richey Equal Justice Award, Delivers Remarks at GW Law04/14/2022 12:00 AM EDTThank you, Professor Saltzburg, for that warm introduction. I also want to thank President Mark Wrighton, Associate Dean Morrison, the George Washington GW University School of Law and the GW University Community for inviting me here today. Gypsy Joker Outlaw Motorcycle Club Members Sentenced to Life in Prison for Kidnapping, Torturing, and Murdering Former Club Member04/15/2022 12:00 AM EDTTwo members of the Gypsy Joker Outlaw Motorcycle Club GJOMC were sentenced to life in federal prison yesterday for kidnapping, torturing, and murdering a former club member.THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTSThe Strasbourg Court, France. The International Criminal Court icc The Hague, Netherlands Article 25: Individual Criminal ResponsibilityThe Court has jurisdiction over natural persons. A person who commits a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court is individually responsible and liable for punishment in accordance with the Rome Statute. 1 In accordance with the Rome Statute, a person shall be criminally responsible and liable for punishment for a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court if that person: Commits such a crime, whether as an individual, jointly with another or through another person, regardless of whether that other person is criminally responsible; 2 Orders, solicits or induces the commission of such a crime which in fact occurs or is attempted; For the purpose of facilitating the commission of such a crime, aids, abets or otherwise assists in its commission or its attempted commission, including providing the means for its commission; 3 In any other way contributes to the commission or attempted commission of such a crime by a group of persons acting with a common purpose. 4 In respect of the crime of genocide, directly and publicly incites others to commit genocide; Attempts to commit such a crime by taking action that commences its execution by means of a substantial step, but the crime does not occur because of circumstances independent of the person's intentions. CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION EU Charter Article 11 Freedom of Expression Everyone has the right to Freedom of Expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. UN Article 23 Right to Work Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.UN Article 21 Non-DiscriminationAny discrimination based on sex, race, color, ethnic or social origin, genetic traits, language, religion or belief, political or other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.NUREMBERG PRINCIPLES VI CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITYThe Nuremberg trials established that all of humanity would be guarded by an international legal shield and that even a Head of State would be held criminally responsible and punished for aggression and Crimes Against Humanity such as murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhumane acts done against any civilian population, or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds, when such acts are done, or such persecutions are carried on in execution of or in connection with any crime against peace or any war crime. Through its harassments and deportation of the Norwegian Jews Norway has violated Nuremberg Principles VI, and specifically the Norwegian Police is guilty and was never brought to justice for these heinous crimes against humanity. An apology does not absolve guilt.  CLICK HERE ORE RESOURCE CENTER BELOWTHE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY EUROPEPETROFILM.COMEMPATHY RESPECT DIGNITYEUROPE ЕВРОПАHelmut KohlCHANCELLOR OF GERMANY'S UNITY AND THE EURO Click picture Play videoHelmut Kohl was the Chancellor who voted for the Euro, created dialogue and common ground with Russa and united Germany together with Mikhail Gorbachev. Kohl was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union from 1973 to 1998. From 1969 to 1976, Kohl was minister president of the state Rhineland-Palatinate. Kohl chaired the Group of Seven in 1985 and again in 1992. ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION FROM A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVEPETROFILM.COMInstitute for Empathic Dialogue Creation and Conflict ResolutionHarald Dahle-SladekFounder and Editor-in-chiefОснователь и главный редакторبنیانگذار و مدیرمسئول創始人兼主編 Want a larger picture? Press Ctrl + scroll wheel.Хотите большую картинку? Нажмите Ctrl + колесо прокрутки.想要更大的圖片?按 Ctrl + 滾輪 SIMASSecurity Incident Management Analysis SystemData mining from Government servers constitutes a serious crime and should be prosecuted. However, the United States' State Department should be careful not to exploit its Security Incident Management Analysis System, SIMAS in a dehumanizing way. It is a fact that Norwegian police and intelligence operatives work hand-in-glove with the United States Embassy in Oslo mining a huge amount of personal data from ordinary Norwegian citizens. Thus, violating §90, the Spy paragraph, which states that "working for a foreign power is a serious crime and is punishable." Breaking the United Nations Human Rights and the Fundamental Charter of the European Union on personal protection is a serious crime too. Before criticizing codebreakers and journalists around the world, the United States should first scrutinize its own endeavors. You can't live crooked and think straight, weather you're a chauffeur or a Chief of State! The Law applies equally to everyone. U.S. EMBASSIES AS WORLD-WIDE SPY PLATFORMS?Norway has long been a close ally of the USA. Outside of the EU, but inside NATO, it provided bases and consistent support for the USA during the Cold War, unsurprisingly seeing neighboring USSR as a serious threat to its interests. Yet, those days would seem to be long gone, at least as far as the US is concerned, if a story recently revealed is to be believed. With revelations that U.S. Embassies in Oslo, Copenhagen, and Stockholm have carried out spying operations against the host citizens of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden from the respective embassies, comes news to WMR that the system carrying out the secret surveillance the Security Incident Management Analysis System or SIMAS – not only also spies on citizens of the two Nordic partners of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, namely Iceland and Finland, from U.S. Embassies in Reykjavik and Helsinki, respectively, but spies on individuals from all U.S. Embassies and consulates around the world from Santiago, Chile, and Canberra, Australia, to Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, to Maputo, Mozambique. According to the Dagbladet newspaper, Norway’s TV2 News reported that 15-20 Norwegians, including ex-police, had been recruited by the US Embassy over 10 years to form a secret group, the Surveillance Detection Unit SDU that would apparently monitor terrorist threats in Norway. The group operated from a building near the embassy, and collected information on hundreds of Norwegian citizens, whose details were added to a database called Security Incident Management Analysis System, SIMAS. The Finnish paper, Helsingin Sanomat, is reporting that the Finnish Security Police SUPO has asked U.S. Authorities about the activities of SIMAS in Helsinki. One nation that has adopted a sanguine reaction to the U.S. Embassy spy program is Denmark, described by one intelligence insider as a “zone of control” for U.S. Surveillance activities in Scandinavia. The cooperation between the U.S. And Denmark in surveillance operations began under Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen. This was one of the reasons he was rewarded by Washington with the job of Secretary General of NATO. The Norwegian and Swedish governments have demanded answers to questions from U.S. Authorities about SIMAS spying but State Department spokesman P. J. Crowley, a retired Air Force colonel who has historically been assigned by the CIA to oversee the Clintons, whether at the White House or, now, at the State Department, claimed that the government of Norway had been informed by the United States of SIMAS surveillance from a Surveillance Detection Unit SDU located in a building near the U.S. Embassy in Oslo. On November 4, Crowley was asked at a State Department press conference about his earlier statement that Norway had been informed about SIMAS. The question-and-answer session: “Q . . . On Monday when I asked you, you said that the Norwegian Government was aware of these activities. They say they are not. So, who’s lying here?” A. “I’m, we, the security of our Embassy involves cooperation between our security officials and Norwegian security officials. I’ll just stand by those words.” Q. “You have rented a building outside Norwegian your Embassy in Norway, in Oslo, and filled it with Norwegian police officers and also Norwegian military officers?” A. “That is a question you have to direct to our Embassy min Oslo; I haven’t been there in a while, so I can’t provide you any insight.” Q. “But just to follow up, both the State Department in Norway and also the Justice Department in Norway said they’re not aware that you have some activities outside your Embassy building. Why haven’t you informed the Norwegian Government?” A. “Well, look, embassy diplomatic posts all over the world are ripe targets for a terrorist attack, whether they’re U.S. Embassies, whether they are the embassies of other governments. It is right and proper that we would take appropriate steps to protect our diplomatic posts anywhere around the world, and we would expect any government to do the same, whether it’s somewhere over out overseas or here in the United States. So we have a program where we look carefully to make to evaluate if we believe our Embassy is under observation and potentially under threat. We share that information across the United States Government. But as appropriate, we share that information with our host government partners. The essence of addressing this challenge which confronts the United States and other countries in the West is the very kind of intelligence cooperation and law enforcement cooperation that has been a hallmark of our alliances for a number of years. So how much the host nation government knows about specific activities, I can’t say. But everything that we do is fully consistent with our security arrangements that we have with any host nation government anywhere in the world, including Norway.” Q. “Is there written agreements about this?” A. “I can’t say. At this point, I would just refer further questions back to our Embassy in Norway.” Media reports that U.S. Embassy spying on civilians has been going on for the past 10 years, since 2000. A State Department Privacy Impact Assessment PIA submitted on January 5, 2010, states, “The Security Incident Management and Analysis System SIMAS is a worldwide Bureau of Diplomatic Security DS web-based application, which serves as a repository for all suspicious activity and crime reporting from U.S. Diplomatic Missions abroad all U.S. Embassies and consulates. Department of State personnel, including Diplomatic Security personnel, regional security officers, and cleared foreign nationals, enter Suspicious Activity Reports SARs into SIMAS as a central repository for all physical security incidents overseas. SIMAS Reports typically contain a detailed narrative description of the suspicious activity prompting the report, available suspicious persons and vehicle descriptors, and other identification data as may be available e.g. Photographs. Reports also indicate date, time and location of suspicious activity, and may include amplifying comments from relevant Bureau offices.” In other words, SIMAS is global and, in some cases, cleared nationals of foreign nations have access to the SIMAS system. The State Department was recruiting local foreign nationals to work with SIMAS in Accra, Ghana; Bujumbura, Burundi; and Sydney, Australia. Even U.S. Citizens abroad are subjected to being subjected to spying by SIMAS. The PIA also states: “SIMAS collects and maintains the following types of PII personally-identifiable information on members of the public, foreign nationals, U.S. Government employees, and contractors who are identified as being directly or indirectly involved in or associated with suspicious activities and/or criminal allegations near USG property. All types of information may not be collected on each specific group of individuals. However, it may be possible for all forms of PII to be collected on an individual.” SIMAS data is also shared with the Central Intelligence Agency, Department of Homeland Security, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Justice, Department of Agriculture, Department of Treasury, Department of Defense including the National Security Agency, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Health and Human Services, the Capitol Police, and all other US embassies and consulates around the world. Although the PIA states that SIMAS data is retained by the Diplomatic Security Bureau accord-ing to a set retention schedule and is not shared for purposes other than crime and terrorism prevention, the same cannot be said for the other agencies that access and retain SIMAS data, including the CIA, FBI, and NSA. The State Department PIA concludes that, “SIMAS has been designed to minimize risk to privacy data.” That is hard to believe considering the global access permitted to the system, as well as the fact that not only do a dozen or more U.S. Agencies have access to the data but so also do foreign nationals. So, if you are in Winnipeg or Warsaw, Lusaka or Lisbon, or Malabo or Paramaribo, and you stroll past the U.S. Embassy or consulate, “smile, you’re on clandestine camera and now in the SIMAS database. Protecting our freedomU.S. SPACE FENCELockheed Martin, AMEC Foster Wheeler, General Dynamics, SATCOM, Northrop Grumman Dear readers,In the 1960'ies, '70ies and ''80ies there was something called "Early Warning" which should give us some time to calculate a proper response. Not anymore! Today we have "instant-detection-send-and-response" phased array-radars. They give us an even better, faster and more accurate situation report. What took minutes before, take seconds and fraction of a second today. U.S. Space Fence is protecting our freedom in a much more reliable and sophistical way than before, and the best part it's here to stay! We thank the United States of America! Remain alert folks! Keep your eyes and ears open! Fight terrorism, domestic and foreign, at least in your spirit. Have a good day. GLOBUS III Mechanical Phased Array Radar on Vardø Island North NorwayCovers Ninety degrees East ICBM's from Plesetsk to Kura and South to Kwajalein.Space Fence The Space Fence program is a new acquisition that will produce three world-wide-dispersed radar sites. The radars will provide the ability to perform un-cued tracking of small objects at low and medium orbital altitudes. The Space Fence program was begun by the US Navy to replace the current VHF Fence radar system. In 2003, the Navy transferred the program to the Air Force. In the intervening years, the Air Force has refined the require-ments for the program to make the resulting radars more capable than a simple VHF Fence replacement. The program is in concept development, with an expected IOC for the first site of 2015. GLOBUS II SLEP The GLOBUS II radar is a dedicated sensor that provides metric tracking and imaging of near-Earth and deep space satellites. It provides the only all-weather, 24/7 space track capability covering 0-90 degrees east longitude. The radar is located in Vardo Norway. It is one of five wide-band imaging radars in the SSN. The Sensor Service Life Extension Programs SLEPsin this program element fund efforts to upgrade and extend the life of operational Space Situation Awareness SSA sensors, as needed. These SLEPs include, but are not limited to, programs that extend the serviceable life of assets and maintain critical capability by replacing aging and increasingly unsustain- able components with modern equipment. SLEPs may incorporate equipment which inher-ently includes technological advances resulting in enhanced or increased capabilities. In addition, the SLEP itself may be designed to increase certain capabilities. The current efforts of Eglin, Haystack Ultra-wideband Satellite Imaging Radar HUSIR, Ground-based Electro Optical Deep Space Surveillance GEODSS, and GLOBUS III are representative of sensor systems upgraded in the SLEP project. As the need arises in the execution year, funds in this project may be used to begin sensor life extension programs on additional efforts. These efforts are in Budget Activity 7, Operational System Development, because they develop modifications for operational SSA sensors. Originally known as HAVE STARE AN/FPS-129, the radar became operational in 1995 at Vandenberg Air Force base in California. While there, it observed several intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM flight tests a as well as two non-intercept tests of the kill vehicle for U.S. National missile defense interceptor then under development IFT-1A and IFT-2. Beginning in late 1998, HAVE STARE was dismantled and moved to Vardo, and renamed Globus II and appears to have become operational in about 2003. A radar named Globus, had been operated since the 1960s by Norway at Vardo, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, and was used to monitor Soviet and Russian ballistic missile flight tests. Outside observers have argued that Globus II is likely to be used to gather information on Russian ballistic missile tests, and that such information could be useful for ballistic missile defense. However, official Norwegian government statements stated that the radar would be used operated by only Norwegian personnel and would be used to track and monitor objects, including space debris in space, research and development, and “Surveillance of the Norwegian area of interest, including the technical gathering of intelligence.”THE UNITED STATESEglin AFB Click picture and PlayHarris Corporation - AN/FPS-85 Radar Cover Replacement Time Lapse, Eglin Air Force BaseINSTANT RESPONSE RADARS Globus III, Eglin FPS-85, Cobra Dane, Kwajalein Altair & Millstone Hill are five of the most valuable sensors today. The Russian FederationPLESETSK COSMODROMEPlesetsk is used especially for military satellites placed into high inclination and polar orbits since the range for falling debris is clear to the north which is largely uninhabited Arctic and polar terrain. It is situated in a region of taiga, or flat terrain with boreal pine forests.Coat of Arms ArchangelskOn October 26, 2017 Russia conducted its annual strategic forces exercise. The exercise invol-ved a launch of a Topol/SS-25 ICBM from Plesetsk. The warhead is said to successfully reach its target at Kura. ICBM BALLISTIC MISSILE LAUNCH SITEFrom Plesetsk in Arkhangelsk to Kura on Kamchatka.CLICK PICTURE AND PLAYThe exercise involved a launch of a Topol/SS-25 ICBM from Plesetsk. The warhead is said to successfully reach its target at Kura. Below Plesets Cosmodrome.Coat of Arms Palana KamchatkaGreater Coat of Arms of Alaska COBRA DANE, SHEMYA ISLANDClick and PlayThe Cobra Dane Phased Array Radar on Shemya Island Shemya Island about 2,414 kilometers from Anchorage, Alaska, and is part of the Near Islands group at the tip of the Aleutian Island chain. Shemya Island occupies approximately 1,425 hectares and is part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is operated by the U.S. Air Force. A person who worked there says, "I did my overseas deployment on Shemya from January 1963 to January 1964. It was a very unusual place. It is the only place I have ever heard of where one can experience heavy fog, tremendous winds, and snow, sleet, or rain all at once. We once endured a storm where the wind speed was measured at 105 mph when the anemometer blew away." He continues with his story, "The work we did was fascinating. I would not have traded my experience there for anything, although I did not appreciate it nearly as much then as I do now. The Army, Air Force, and Navy people working on Shemya can be justifiably proud of what they contributed to our winning the Cold War." Electrical equipment in the subarray face of the Cobra Dane radar systemThe computer room for the Cobra Dane radar system during the Cold war. Shemya Island has been developed by the military and continues to operate as an Intelligence Radar site whose principal purpose involves monitoring space and mis-sile activities. The base is under control of the Eareckson Air Station Program Management Office, part of the 611th Air Support Group at Elmendorf Air Force Base Alalska. Eareckson Air Station is an isolated self-contained military installation, and it has no surrounding communities.  DEFENDING OUR FREEDOMCOBRA DANE RADAR COVERAGEEareckson Air Station Shemya IslandThe Cobra Dane Phased Array Radar on Eareckson Air Station Shemya Island. Eareckson Air Station is a United States Air Force military airport located on the island of Shemya, in the Alaskan Aleutian Islands. Established in May of 1943 as a forward operating base for long-range bomber aircraft of the US Army Air Force to conduct bombing missions on Japanese positions in the Kurile Islands, the base was heavily utilized until war's end, with the present-day runway being added to the airfield to support the operations a planned squadron of B-29 Superfortresses flying missions ag-ainst mainland Japan as part of Operation Downfall.  "From its establishment in early 2002 through the end of 2010, the Missile Defense Agency is fielding a Ballistic Missile Defense System consisting of 30 Ground-Based Interceptors for long-range homeland defense. Aegis warships capable of long-range surveillance and tracking and missile intercepts. Standard Missile-3 interceptors for Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense warships. Upgraded Cobra Dane radar in the Aleutian Islands." Upgraded early warning radars, currently Beale Air Force Base, Calif., Fylingdales, U.K., and Thule, Green-land. 11 transportable X-band radars for operations and testing. Sea-based X-band radar now located in the Pacific Ocean to support flight testing and actual defensive operations. Integrated Command, Control, Battle Management, and Communications element across the BMDS.COBRA DANEThe certain principal use of this X-band radar, along with a second one for Eareckson Air Station on Shemya Island, some 2414Km southwest of An-chorage, will be to collect detailed intelligence data on Russia¹s long-range ballistic missiles. This data will cover the entire trajectory of the missiles, and will be of primal value to a U.S. NMD system. THE COBRA DANE PHASED ARRAY RADAR ON SHEMYA ISLANDThe 21st Operations Group was reactivated on 15 May 1992 as a component of the redesig-nated and reactivated 21st Space Wing, providing command management of Air Force Space Command's worldwide network of assigned missile warning, space surveillance, and communications units.The 21st Operations Group assumed the Cobra Dane Radar mission at Eareckson Air Station, Shemya Island, Alaska, April 1. Eareckson AS is located on the western tip of Alaska's Aleutian islands. The radar has the ability to detect objects about 2,000 miles away, and provides data for the Space Surveillance Network and the Ballistic Missile Defense System. Cobra Dane will continue to be operated by a contract workforce, and no military personnel will be assigned to the unit at Eareckson Air Station. Full cover of Russian missile testingCobra Dane security patrolNorway Traveling in theBarents Euro-Arctic Region Along the Norwegian coast from Bergen via Nordkapp to Kirkenes and back, 12 days.Seal of the arctic city of Tromsø, NorwayTravel log by Harald Dahle The region in question here is called the Barents Euro-Arctic Region. This northern-most region sweeps through Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia with its northern borders pointed directly towards the humongous Barents Sea. The region is the arctic part of the European Mainland Continent where it suddenly drops down in the ocean and disappears. This abrupt ending of mainland Europe into the ice cold and deep Barents Sea, is a dramatic confirmation of the geological processes that once have taken place here, and a stern reminder to us uber civilized souls that all things must come to an end.The Barents Euro-Arctic Region comprises the countries Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia Suddenly, and with no warning, Europe as we know it, is finished! Experiencing this first hand oneself will make a considerable psychological impact on the traveler, daring to approach this “ghostly” area. Particularly during the winter months between November, December and January. Why travel in the winter? I did the round trip on board the coastal ferry "Richard With",from December 23 to January 6 in 1993. And as such I claim to have “hands-on” winter experience. The Polar Circle is located between the two stops Nesna in the south and Ørnes further north. Traveling in the winter is a traveling in the gray scale of light. Up at Honningsvåg, I remember the sun as “fragile streams of soft light bouncing through layers of woolen clouds". At an angle of 12-15 degrees, bearing West-North-East – lasting three hours maximum, before gray turned to pitch-black darkness again. Click picture Watch: "Hunting the Northern Lights in Norway!"The majestic coastal ferry, "MS Richard With" plowing through the sea at full speed ahead! And to be there and to experience it, is "to be on the Moon" – Gone are the modern metropolises in shining glass, towering concrete and beaming lights of all kinds, from all directions at the same time. Here, up north at the very edge of civilization, nature speaks directly to you - and you listen carefully! And so it goes. From one stop northwards to the next stop. Snow falling, ship maneuvering slowly through sometimes shallow straits. The captains on these coastal ferries are themselves sons of captains, who also maneuvered these ships. Big sand banks outstretched beneath the hull move around, and the narrow passages above are maneuvered with maximum alertness. “Fragile streams of soft light bouncing through layers of woolen clouds" The light is there. But it’s a different kind of light. Passing North Cape, there is nothing between the edge of the European continent and the North Pole. The wind sweeps over, the light must follow nature’s cycle. Suddenly, the little human being is “taken” by the colossal meeting with something so much bigger than oneself. This is a spectacle to observe, not to argue with. Traveling in the winter along the Norwegian coast is an investment in psychological awareness and depth, a unique chance to experience life in shades of gray and faint-color light.On 19th of October, a rainy city in Northern Russia welcomed travelers from all across the Barents countries and beyond. The historical city of Arkhangelsk once again had something to show to the world – a relationship of four nations and their cooperation remarkable to the people living in the North. An important event was about to take place, as Russia handed over the chairmanship of the Barents Euro-Arctic Council BEAC to Sweden.And the cold! Between -12 till -27, wind not included. Bring a very thick winter coat! People along the coast come on board to look – invite you for coffee. They did with me! That is only in the winter when the ferry is half full, or one third full, depending. On board, the food is excellent, and when crossing the Polar Circle, you will be baptized with ice water in front of cheering dinner guests in the spacious dining room. And that water is freezing! After the voyage is competed and you are safely back in Bergen on the west coast, you, like myself will feel “reborn and energized again” – and you will never forget what you have just experienced in your reptilian brain. Because, this voyage is not an experience meant for the cognitive side of the brain, nor is it ment to be an illusion of faraway Disneyland. U.S. Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates at Elmendorf AFBU.S. Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates and wife Becky are greeted by Air Force Lt. Gen. Dana T. Atkins, commander of Alaskan Command, during his visit to Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska, June 1, 2009. ELMENDORF AFBJoint Base Elmendorf-Richardson That importance was further recognized when the F-15E Strike Eagle equip-ped 90th Tactical Fighter Squadron was reassigned to Elmendorf Air Force Base from Clark Air Base in the Philppines in May 1991. The Pacific Regional Medical Center moved from Clark to Elmendorf and construction of a new, greatly expanded hospital began in 1993. The early 1990s also saw major organizational changes and an expansion of Elmendorf's imp-ortance. In 1991, the 21st Tactical Fighter Wing was reorganized as an objective wing and all the major tenant units on Elmendorf were placed under it. The 21st Wing was inactivated and the 3d Wing was reassigned from Clark Air Base to Elmendorf Air Force Base on 19 December 1991. This was in keeping with the Air Force's polices of retaining the oldest and most illustrious units during a period of major force reductions. It was also an alternative landing site for the Space Shuttle. The base also contains the headquarters of the Alaska Wing of the Civil Air Patrol.Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson Below, Boeing C-17 Globemaster III from Elmendorf AFBFORT GREELY ALASKAGROUND BASED INTERCEPTOR MISSILE FACILITIESU.S. Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates talks to U.S. Army Col. George Bond, Missile Defense Agency's top officer at the ground based interceptor missile facilities in Alaska, June 1, 2009. DoD photo by U.S. Air Force Master Sgt. Jerry MorrisonU.S. Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates climbs down into a ground-based interceptor missile silo on Fort Greely, Alaska, June 1, 2009. GUARD - ENGAGE - DESTROYFORT GREELY ALASKAINTERCEPTOR MISSILE FIELDThe Groundbased Midcourse Defense systemIt is the largest, fastest, and most intelligent projectile available to the US Army. Despite this you probably never heard of it nor the Army National Guard Soldiers who "pull the lanyard." If you think a 155mm howitzer shell is big, the M21 rifle is accurate, the MLRS can fire over a long distance, or that the PATRIOT air defense system is sophisticated, you are correct on all accounts. There is one system operated by the Army National Guard however, that dwarfs any of its nearest competitors. That system is the Groundbased Midcourse Defense system and it has been operational for more than a decade with Army National Guard Soldiers from Colorado, Alaska, and California's 100th Missile Defense Brigade. The tip of the spear for the GMD system is its Groundbased Interceptor, or simply "GBI." While it may not be the most awe-inspiring name for a defensive weapon system, its performance in conjunction with its fire control system will certainly leave you in awe. The GMD system is the ultimate "smart weapon." The GBI consists of a 3-stage solid rocket boost vehicle which can place it's payload of an Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle outside the earth's atmosphere. In order to do this the missile must reach an escape velocity of more than 6.9 miles per second. This hypersonic speed is several times what a 7.62mm bullet travels leaving the muzzle of a gun. To put it another way, it reaches a speed of approximately Mach 33. Groundbased Interceptor being emplaced at the Missile Defense Complex, Fort Greely, Alaska MULTI SENSORSOnce outside the atmosphere and at distances thousands of miles from the launch facilities at Vandenberg AFB, Calif, or Fort Greely, Alaska, the boost vehicle releases the EKV on an intercept trajectory toward a hostile missile's warhead. From there, the EKV seeks out the target using multi-color sensors, a cutting-edge onboard computer, and a series of rocket motors used for independent steering in space. The EKV homes in on its target with pinpoint accuracy and destroys it using nothing more than the force of a massive collision hit to kill without the need of a traditional warhead or explosives. It is like hitting a bullet with a bullet, but these bullets are launched thous- ands of miles apart and are moving at Mach 33. It is ferociously complicated, but it works. Here's why. The GBI is just the most visible aspect to the cutting-edge GMD system. GMD is a "system of systems" involving shooters, sensors, and Command, Control and Communication systems. Satellite communication ground station at the Missile Defense Complex, Fort GreelyWhile the GBIs comprise the shooter portion of the system, the sensors are the eyes and ears of GMD. These sensors consist of space-based infra-red satellites, upgraded early warning radars UEWRs and COBRA Dane operated by the Air Force, transpor-table X-band radars AN/TPY-2, AEGIS radar on board select U.S. Navy warships, and the massive sea-based X-band Radar. These sensors provide information to the GMD Fire Control system in order to calculate precise intercept points for the GBIs and EKVs.The Army National Guard Soldiers of the 100th Missile Defense Brigade in Colorado and California, and 49th Missile Defense Battalion in Alaska operate the Command, Control and Communication portion of GMD system and are the essential human element of GMD. Missile Defense Element crews from the 100th and Fire Direction Center crews from the 49th man the system 24/7/365. They are responsible for the strategic and tactical level execution of the GMD mission and provide security forces to defend the assets at Fort Greely, Alaska. The Soldiers of the 100th Missile Defense Brigade are part of a very unique multi-component organization. The brigade headquarters is located in Colorado Springs, Colorado and consists mainly of full-time Active Guard and Reserve, Colorado Army National Guardsmen. The unit also includes a small contingent of Active Component Regular Army Soldiers. The 100th is tasked with conducting a presidentially-directed national security mission to defend the United States against the threat of ICBM attack. At Fort Greely, Alaska, the Alaska Army National Guard AGR Solders of the 49th Missile Defense Battalion are charged with the same ballistic missile defense mission as the 100th but have the additional mission essential task for their Military Police to secure the Missile Defense Complex at Fort Greely. The small contingent of California Army National Guard Soldiers of 100th MDB Detachment 1 at Vandenberg AFB are tasked with performing liaison and asset management of the GBIs located there in support of the brigade and battalion. In order to perform their federal mission, all 100th MDB National Guard Soldiers ope-rate in a "dual status" allowing them to automatically transition between Title 10 fede-ral Active Duty and Title 32 National Guard status. The Soldiers seamlessly transition between these two statuses depending on the duties they are performing or location. When on-duty at GMD operational sites performing their federal mission they serve in Title 10 and are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice. When off-duty or in an administrative status away from GMD operational sites they are in a Title 32 status and are administratively controlled ADCON to their respective States' National Guard.Digital Phase Shift Control for Phased Array Radar Invention by Harvey G. Cragon and Henry N. PetersonThis invention relates to control of a radar involving microwave modular an-tenna, and more particularly to digital phase shift control of a multielement phased array antenna. This invention is particularly advantageous in connection with the construction and operation of airborne radar, but also has important application in ground based and ship based systems.Thule Phased Array Radar Greenland Areas of application include radars used for ground mapping, search and detection, fire control, tracking, navigation, terrain following, and terrain avoidance. With this invention, the radar may be operated in any one of the above modes or in several of such modes on a time-sharing basis. Airborne radar systems inherently have a problem of generating high power microwave energy and processing the transmitted and received signals while maintaining high reliability and minimum weight. Major reliability problems in radars have been concerned with components such as rotary joints, servomotors for the antennas, and the like. Restrictions imposed by such components on reliability exist in the most contemporary transistorized radars. Further, the use of magnetrons for transmitting, klystrons for local oscillator service, and use of high power transmit-receive TR protection devices, all have been found to restrict the reliability of the system. The present invention is directed to an improved radar which may employ solid-state circuitry so constructed that major obstacles heretofore encountered in the development of solid-state radar may be overcome. A solidstate functional electronic module has been developed for construction of a modular antenna array responsive to beam steering control disclosed in application Ser. No. 397,491 of Harry E. Cooke, et al., filed Sept. 18, 1964, now abandoned in favor of continuation application. The Principle of Digital Phase shift 1. A system for dynamically controlling the directional character of a line of elements in a phased antenna which comprises:a separate selectively variable delay means in each of said elements through which radar signals must pass,b a first counter having outputs of decreasing order and in number corresponding with the number of elements in said line,c a source of clock pulses,d means for applying said clock pulses to said first counter during a time gate proportional to the desired radiation angle of said line of elements,e separate counter and switch means for control of each of said delay means,f circuit means for transmitting pulses from the outputs of said first counter to said separate counter means with correspondence between the locations of elements in said line and the positions of outputs of said first counter, andg 'means operative following application of said clock pulses to said first counter for actuating said switch means to vary the effective lengths of said delay means in dependence upon the counts in their respective separate counters preparatory to transmission of signals through said elements.2. The combination set forth in claim 1 in which said first counter is a binary rate counter.3. The system of claim 1 wherein modulo-360 generators are included in each output of said first counter.4. The system of claim 3 wherein each modulo-360 generator includes means to introduce a present count therein with selected reset pulses applied thereto.5. A system for dynamically controlling the directional character of a two-dimensional multimodule antenna which comprises:'a separate selectively variable delay means within each said module through which radar signals must pass,b a first counter having outputs of decreasing order and in number corresponding with the number of modules in one dimension of said antenna,0 a second counter having outputs of decreasing order and in number corresponding with the number of modules in a second dimension of said antenna,d a source of clock pulses,e means for applying said clock pulses to said first counter during a time interval proportional to the desired azimuth angle,f means for applying said clock pulses to said second counter during a time interval proportional to the desired elevation angle,g separate switching counters and switch means for each of said delay means,h circuit means for sequentially transmitting pulses from the outputs of said first and second counters to said switching counters with correspondence between the locations of the modules in said antenna and the positions of the outputs of said first and second counters to actuate said switch means to vary the electrical lengths of said delay means in dependence upon the count in their respective counters preparatory to transmission of radar signals therethrough.6. A system for dynamically controlling the directional character of a two-dimensional multimodule antenna which comprises:a separate selectively variable delay means within each said module through which radar signals must pass,b a first counter having outputs of decreasing order and in number corresponding with the number of modules in one dimension of said antenna,c a second counter having outputs of decreasing order and in number corresponding with the number of modules in a second dimension of said antenna,d a source of clock pulses,e means for applying said clock pulses to said first counter during a time interval proportional to the desired azimuth angle,f means for applying said clock pulses to said second counter during a time interval proportional to the desired elevation angle,g separate switching counters and switch means for each of said delay means,h circuit means for transmitting pulses from the outputs of said first and second counters to said switching counters with correspondence between the locations of the modules in said antenna and the positions of the outputs of said first and second counters, andi means operative following application of said clock pulses to said first and second counters to actuate said switch means to vary the electrical lengths of 13 said delay means in dependence upon the count in their respective counters preparatory to transmission of radar signals therethrough.7. The method of dynamically controlling the directional character of a two dimensional phased array antenna which comprises:a generating a first train of clock impulses of length proportional to the desired azimuth angle,b generating a second train of clock pulses of length proportional to the desired elevation angle, from said first train, producing a first set of secondary trains of pulses in number corresponding with the number of elements arrayed along one dimension of said antenna and with the trains of said first set grated in length in dependence upon locations of said elements across said antenna,d from said second train producing second set of secondary trains of pulses in number corresponding with the number of elements arrayed along a second dimension of said antenna with the trains of said second set graded in length in dependence upon location of said elements across said antenna, ande adjusting the electrical length of the radar path leading to each element in response to the sum of pulses in pairs of different trains of said secondary pulses where one train of each pair is derived from said first set and the other from said second set.8. The method according to claim 7 wherein said first and second trains of pulses are produced simultaneously and wherein said first and second sets are employed sequentially.9. The method according to claim 7 wherein said first and second sets of pulses are each connected to modulo- 360 and are thereafter sequentially applied to each said element.10. A system for dynamically controlling the directional character of at line of elements in a phased antenna which comprises:a separate selectively variable delay means in each of said elements through which radar signals must pass,b means for varying the effective lengths of said delay means,c a first counter having outputs of decreasing order and in number corresponding with the number of elements in said line,d a source of clock pulses,e means for applying said clock pulses to said first counter during a time gate proportional to the desired radiation angle of said line of elements, andf circuit means for transmitting pulses from the output of said counter to said means for varying with correspondence between the locations of elements in said line and the positions of outputs of said counter to vary the eliective lengths of said delay means.Block DiagramsFIGURE 1 diagrammatically illustrates the operation of an aircraft, its antenna array, and the functional electronic block employed to make up the array;FIGURE 2 illustrates one form of a solid-state antenna module;FIGURE 3 is a block diagram of the multimode radar of FIGURE 1 in which the present invention is employed;FIGURE 4 illustrates a phase shift unit which is incorporated in and used with each module of the" antenna;FIGURE 5 illustrates a phase shift pulse converter employed for the control of the several phase shift elements;FIGURE 6 is a circuit diagram of a binary rate multiplier forming a part of FIGURE 5;FIGURE 7 is a line selector and quantizer employed in the system of FIGURE 5;FIGURE 8 illustrates a preferred embodiment of the invention, taken with FIGURES 9 and 10;FIGURE 9 is a detailed circuit diagram of a portion of the system of FIGURE 8; andFIGURE 10 illustrates time relationships in FIGURES 8 and 9. KWAJALEIN ATOLL REPUBLIC OF THE MARSHALL ISLANDSConstruction is underway on Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands to build Space Fence, a sophisticated system that will dramatically improve the way the U.S. Air Force identifies and tracks objects in space. The new system’s initial operational capability is scheduled for 2018.Click and PlayBelow is an aerial view of the U.S. Air Fence under construction on Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Island. The flexibility and sensitivity of the system will provide coverage of deep space geosynchronous orbits while maintaining the survellance fence. Pic: Lockheed Martin.Click and PlayWith critical design review completed, the Space Fence team is focused on production of technology that will bring the system online. Space Fence will use Gallium Nitride GaN powered S-band ground-based radars to provide the Air Force with uncued detection, tracking and accurate measurement of space objects, primarily in low-earth orbit. Lockheed Martin engineers and U.S. Air Force personnel are testing and training on a scaled-down version of the system in Moorestown NJ known as the Integration test Bed. The ITB provides the operational context to integrate and test end-item hardware and software prior to installation in the new Space Fence facility on Kwajalein.The locations and higher wave frequency of the new Space Fence radars will permit the detection of much smaller microsatellites and debris than current systems. Additionally, Lockheed Martin’s Space Fence design will significantly improve the timeliness with which operators can detect space events, which could present potential threats to GPS satellites or the International Space Station. The flexibility and sensitivity of the system will provide coverage of deep space geosynchronous orbits while maintaining the surveillance fence. Kwajalein atoll Peacekeeper missile testing. THE ALTAIR RADAR THE KWAJALEIN ATOLLBelow, four SSN radars at Kwajalein. The ALTAIR antenna is the large dish at upper center, viewed partially against the lagoon. The antenna for TRADEX, which backs up ALTAIR in the Space Surveillance Network SSN, is the dish antenna on top of the build-ing near the center of the picture. The antenna for the ALCOR imaging radar is in the dome at lower left, and the antenna for the MMW imaging radar is in the dome in the center of the picture be-tween the ALTAIR and TRADEX antennas. THE TRADEX ALTAIR RADARS ON THE KWAJALEIN ATOLL Click and PlayEGLIN Air Force BaseTHE FPS-85 EGLIN RADARThe FPS-85 has been described as the workhorse of the SSN, and is the largest, most sensitive and most important for space surveillance purposes of the SSN’s LPARs. It is one of the three dedicated radar sensors in the SSN the others are the Air Force Fence and the GLOBUS II dish antenna radar in Norway. The radar is located in Eglin, Florida and thus sometimes referred to as the Eglin Radar at about 30.6° N 30.57N, 86.22 E and points directly south. The FPS-85 was the world’s first large phased-array radar. Its construction began in 1962, but it was destroyed by fire in 1965 before becoming fully operational. It was rebuilt and began operations in 1969. The radar was originally intended only for space surveillance, but in 1975 it was also assigned a submarine-launched ballistic missile warning mission. In 1987, corre- sponding to the activation of two south-facing PAVE PAWS early warning radars in Georgia and Texas both since deactivated, it returned to full-time space surveillance. The FPS-85 has separate receive and transmit antennas contained within the same building, with boresites pointing due south at a 45º elevations. It can scan ±60˚ in azimuth and from the horizon to 15˚ beyond zenith in elevation. It was built with two separate antennas because at the time of its construction it was less costly to do this than building a single transmit/receive antenna. This choice also facilitated simultaneously obtaining multiple narrow receive beams for more precise tracking and a broader transmit beam more suitable for surveillance.Technical CharacteristicsThe transmitter is a 72×72 rectangular array, with 5,184 transmit modules with 0.55 λ spacing. Its center frequency is 442 MHz, with a 10 MHz bandwidth. Its wavelength is thus about 0.68 m, and the antenna’s diameter is about 26.9 m with an area of 724 m2. The transmit antenna is uniformly illuminated and has a 1.4 degree beam width for comparison, λ/D = 0.68/27 = 1.44 degrees. Each of the 5,184 transmitter element is rated for a peak power of 10 kW and a 0.5% duty cycle. These give an array peak power of 52 MW and an average power of 260 kW. However, according to a 1994 paper the average power of individual elements individual elements varied from 2.5 to 10 W, with an average of about 6 W. This is consistent with a number of sources that give the radar’s peak power as about 30-35 MW. Assuming a peak power of 35 MW, the radar’s average power would then be about 175 kW. The receive antenna is a tapered array with a diameter of 58 m containing 19,500 crossed dipole elements on a square grid, forming a circular aperture 152 elements in diameter. There are 4660 active receive modules. Its receive beam width is 0.8º in comparison, 0.68/58 = 0.0117 = 0.67 degrees. It receives using a 3×3 cluster of receive beams, with a 0.4º spacing, giving a 1 db crossover and thus a low beam-shape loss. The combined beam width is therefore 0.4+0.8+0.4 = 1.6º. All nine receive beams are used in search, but only five in track. The FPS-85 operates in time blocks called resource periods, each of which is 50 ms long. During a resource period, the radar can transmit up to eight pulses for a maximum total transmit time of 250 μs corresponding to duty cycle of 0.5%. Pulse lengths are 1, 5, 10, 25, 125, and 250 μs. Its maximum bandwidth is 10 MHz. The pulse compression used to obtain greater better range resolution ratio may be as large as 1,600. In its long-range surveillance mode, it emits a single 250 μs frequency-modulated compressed pulse every 50 ms. OperationsThe FPS-85 initially conducted surveillance using several different radar fences. A 1994 software upgrade left the FPS-85 with only relatively low-elevation radar fences, as the software needed for a higher-elevation fence intended for detecting lower RCS space objects was not funded. Figure 1 below shows a fence described as the existing SPACETRACK fence in a 1996 paper. This fence begins at an azimuth of 142˚ at an elevation of 15˚, reaches an elevation of 23˚ at 180˚ degrees azimuth along the boresite direction and continues on to an azimuth of 218˚ at an elevation angle of 15˚. This total azimuth extent of 76˚ used 76 beam positions. An additional 24 beam positions were used to extend coverage directly down to an elevation angle of 3˚ at each end of the fence. A 2004 report describes a previously existing fence, the S-1 fence, as scanning between the same endpoints, but reaching a maximum elevation angle of 25˚, as shown in figure 2 below. Another source describes a low-elevation fence which was not leak-proof for all altitudes and elevations with a peak elevation of about 23˚ extending 120˚ in azimuth, dipping down to the horizon at its ends. In 1999, the radar’s software was upgraded to provide a higher-elevation fence. This new “debris” fence was scanned at a maximum of about 35˚ in elevation and ±25˚ degrees in azi-muth from the radar’s due south azimuth boresite. Following tests May 2000, this new debris fence was apparently put into operation, although at the time it was expected that it would be operated in a “background” mode, that is, only when time was left over from its normal space surveillance tasks. However, another source indicates that the FPS-85 was using a 35˚ elevation fence with a length of ±40* for detecting low-earth orbit objects as early as 1997. By integrating large numbers of pulses, the FPS-85 is capable of tracking previously detected objects at least out to geosynchronous orbit range. It is the only phased-array radar in the U.S. Space Surveillance Network capable of tracking objects in geosynchronous orbit the next two largest phased arrays are not oriented so as to be able to view geosynchronous orbit. The FPS-85 assumed a deep space role in November 1988 after receiving a range-extension upgrade enabling integration of many pulses. PHASED ARRAY RADARA THEORETICAL MODEL OF INSTANT DETECTION AND RESPONSE SPACE AND NAVAL WARFARE SYSTEMS COMMAND SAND DIEGOU.S. ARMY SPACE AND MISSILE DEFENSE COMMANDTHE MILLSTONE HILL RADAR MASSACHUSETTS, USAThe Space Surveillance Network SSN is made up of sensors, communications links, proces sing centers, and data distribution channels. The sensors are a conglomeration of capabil- ities mostly derived from and shared by other missions. Few of the sensors were developed for the express purpose of conducting space surveillance. The Air Force has recognized that providing warfighters with effective Space Situational Awareness SSA requires a coordi-nated architecture-based approach to establishing and maintaining sensor capabilities. Air Force Space Command AFSPC has established pro-grams to acquire new capabilities such asSpace Based Space Surveillance SBSS and Space Fence, has partnered with other agen-cies to acquire the first Space Surveillance Telescope SST, and has begun to modernize legacy capabilities such as the Eglin FPS-85 radar, the Haystack radar, the GLOBUS II radar, and the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance GEODSS system. The Air Force has also recognized that protection of space systems must become a priority, and has established a program to do this through Self Awareness Space Situational Awareness SASSA. Space Based Space Surveillance The first SBSS satellite is expected to launch into a sun-synchronous low-Earth orbit in October 2009. The satellite was built by a team made up of Boeing prime and Ball Aerospace space vehicle. The development and production contract provides for satellite design, fabrication, delivery, and launch, as well as ground station delivery and post-launch support. Launch will be on a Minotaur IV from Vandenberg AFB. INCHOHRENT SCATTERING RADARSSPACE BASED SPACE SURVEILLANCE The satellite is ready for launch. The mission of SBSS is timely detection, identification, and tracking of resident space objects RSOs. SBSS will track objects primarily in deep space orbital period greater than 225 minutes. However, SBSS will also have the capability to track objects with shorter periods, illumination permitting. SBSS will provide position, man-euver setection, and space object identification data to the Joint Space Operations Center JSpOC and the Alternate Space Control Center ASCC. The SBSS payload consists of a visible sensor assembly, a gimbal, and payload deck electronics. The visible sensor assembly consists of: • Optical bench • Telescope • CCD focal plane array • Cryoradiator • Video Interface Box • Elevation electronics box • Filter wheel mechanism • Focus mechanism • Aperture door mechanism • Electrical harness The gimbal consists of: • Beryllium yoke • Azimuth and elevation drives • Azimuth launch lock • Electrical harness for interface with payload electronics.The payload deck electronics package consists of: • Payload electronics box • Gimbal amplifier segment • Solid state recorder • On-board mission data processor • Electrical harness for interface with visible sensor assembly, gimbal, and bus Space Survei-llance Telescope SST is a ground-based system using the latest in optical technology to in-crease SSA capability.THE SST DARPA PROGRAM The SST program is a DARPA technology demonstration providing a 3.5 meter f/1.0 tele-scope. SST has the potential to become an Air Force Space Command AFSPC dedicated sensor pending successful outcome of a demonstration in 2011- 2012. MIT Lincoln Laboratory is providing program management, integration, supervision of facility construction, and the telescope camera. L-3 Integrated Optical Systems is building the telescope. AUSTRALIANAVAL E. HOLT COMMUNICATON STATIONEXMOUTH WESTERN AUSTRALIAThe telescope achieved first light in February 2011. In 2013, the U.S. Secretary of Defense and Australian Minister of Defence signed an MOU agreeing to relocate the Space Surveillance Telescope from the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico to Harold E. Holt Naval Communication Station in Western Australia. Australia offers a uniquely beneficial vantage point for operational testing and demonstrat-ion of SST’s enhanced algorithms and camera. After the move, SST will be owned by the United States Air Force, but operated and maintained by Australia. It will be a dedicated sensor in the U.S. Space Surveillance Network SSN. The SST will detect small objects in deep space, and provide a rapid, wide-area search capa-bility, significantly increasing optical surveillance capacity. The tele-scope is designed to find, fix, track, and characterize faint objects. It will be more sensitive than GEODSS. SST will be the first large telescope to employ a curved CCD focal plane array. It is the most dynamically agile telescope of its size ever built. It provides the first major technology push for deep space surveillance in over three decades. The Defence Minister says a new telescope planned for Western Australia will not be used to spy on other countries, even though it will have the capability to do so. The powerful device will be built in Exmouth as part of an agreement between Australia and the United States. It will contribute to the US global Space Surveillance Network, which provides warnings to all satellite operators of potential collisions with other satellites or debris. A US Navy communication station already exists in the town, in West Australia's north-west.David Johnston, Defense Minister Australia The construction costs of the telescope will be shared and it will be located at the Harold Holt naval communications facility. Defence Minister David Johnston says the telescope will focus on protecting satellites from space junk and will be operating in 2016. "The US indicated they needed some southern hemisphere coverage," he told AM. "They came to us and we said 'well, why don't we put it at Exmouth? "And they said 'that's a good idea'. And here we are. Below is transcript of the radio talk with Defense Minister David Johnston. TONY EASTLEY: The small West Australian town of Exmouth will soon be home to a space surveillance telescope, the result of a highly sensitive United States and Australian defence agreement.While the telescope will track asteroids and space debris, the Australian Defence Minister insists it will not be used for spying, despite having the ability to do so.The telescope has been moved to the Harold Holt naval communications facility at Exmouth.Here's AM's Caitlyn Gribbin. CAITLYN GRIBBIN: Exmouth, north of Perth, is best known for its US Navy communication station. Now, it's getting a space surveillance telescope. The Minister for Defence, Senator David Johnston:DAVID JOHNSTON: The US indicated they needed some southern hemisphere coverage. They came to us and we said well why don't we put it at Exmouth? And they said that's a good idea. And here we are. CAITLYN GRIBBIN: Senator Johnston and the US secretary of defence Chuck Hagel have signed a memorandum of understanding. The construction costs will be shared and the telescope, which will monitor space debris, will be operating in 2016. Radio astronomy researcher professor Steven Tingay:STEVEN TINGAY: What it does is transmit radio waves out into space. Those radio waves reflect off bits of space junk and the reflected waves are received by the telescope. And the telescope basically tracks the space junk, predicts its orbit and is there to try and help prevent collisions between the space junk and satellites. CAITLYN GRIBBIN: The telescope has the capacity to reach out over 36,000 kilometres. Senator Johnston says it's in the national interest to build the telescope in WA. DAVID JOHNSTON: We have a very large number of satellites that we use for communication purposes and you'd think it's really important that we assist the operators of those satellites to be able to steer around this space junk.CAITLYN GRIBBIN: Minister, when surveillance technology is spoken about, so too is its ability to facilitate spying. Do you have any concerns about that? DAVID JOHNSTON: No, I don't. I'm very much aware that this is for the general use of satellites that are largely civil in their output. CAITLYN GRIBBIN: Does the memorandum of understanding that you've signed with the US have a clause specifying that the telescope won't be used for spying purposes? DAVID JOHNSTON: I'm, I don't have the document in front of me. It was a very short document. It was about the surveillance of space debris. It doesn't look at Earth. It looks out from Earth into the outer atmosphere so that it's, you know, it's focused on things that are in the line of travel of satellites. CAITLYN GRIBBIN: Professor Tingay again: STEVEN TINGAY: Obviously surveillance of all different types can use radar techniques and listening techniques. So broadly speaking, it's in the same class of instruments but its specific purpose is to do radar for space junk. CAITLYN GRIBBIN: The telescope will contribute to the US global Space Surveillance Network, which provides warnings to all satellite operators of potential collisions with other satellites or debris. WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE NEW MEXICO, USAThe SST facility at White Sands Missile Range NM is complete. The telescope is still under construction. SST will see first light in late 2010. DARPA testing will occur in 2010 and 2011. AFSPC will evaluate the telescope’s performance in actual operations in 2011 and 2012. During this evaluation period, SST will operate as a contributing sensor to the SSN. At the end of the evaluation period, assuming SST performance is acceptable, it will become a dedicated SSN sensor.The potential exists to acquire and deploy additional SST installations in the post-2012 time frame. AFSPC will publish an architecture that includes SSTs in late 2009. Eglin FPS-85 Radar Service Life Extension Pro-gram SLEP The FPS-85 is the work-horse of the SSN in the near-Earth regime. It provides timely and accurate metric tracking and space object identification data. Although primarily a near-Earth sensor, it is the only dedicated, high-capacity phased array radar with both near-Earth and deep-space capability. It is the primary tracker of low-inclination objects, and of objects that transit the manned-spaceflight regime. It has the capability to track most near-Earth objects once per day. View of the solar array, the U.S. Army's largest solar photovoltaic system, located at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, USA. GEODSS SLEP GEODSS GEODSS SLEP GEODSS is the key provider of deep space metric observations. It produces 70% of all geosynchronous tracks and 50% of all deep space tracks. GEODSS tracks over 200 objects not tracked by any other sensor. The GEODSS SLEP funds replacement of aged and unsustainable Sensor Controller Group and Data Processing Group with modern compo-nents. Without the SLEP, GEODSS will soon experience degraded operations, and eventual mission failure.Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance System on Diego Garcia The FPS-85 routinely tracks 50-60 manned spaceflight objects that are not tracked by any other sensor, and 220-230 manned spaceflight objects that are tracked by at most one other sensor. This makes the operation of the FPS-85 critical to the safety of manned space-flight. The SLEP will extend the operation of the radar until 2018 and will provide the ground work for future updates to the radar. The SLEP will replace: • Computer • Radar Interface and Control Equipment • Calibration system • Signal processor • Beam steering equipment Haystack Ultra-Wideband Satellite Imaging Radar HUSIR The Haystack radar is a contribut-ing sensor operated by MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and provides imaging of nearEarth and deep space objects. Haystack operates today at X-band, with one GHz of bandwidth. The upgrade will add the capability to operate at W-band with eight MHz of bandwidth. This will enable finer characterization of satellites, and characterization of smaller satellites than possible today. Operation at W-band requires replacement of the current Haystack antenna. Because of this, Haystack will be down from operations from May 2010 until August 2011. A smaller antenna, which is being used to test the W-band RF components, is producing images and will be available for limited operations during this time. Space Fence The Space Fence program is a new acquisition that will produce three world-wide-dispersed radar sites. The radars will provide the ability to perform un-cued tracking of small objects at low and medium orbital altitudes. The Space Fence program was begun by the US Navy to replace the current VHF Fence radar system. In 2003, the Navy transferred the program to the Air Force. In the intervening years, the Air Force has refined the require-ments for the program to make the resulting radars more capable than a simple VHF Fence replacement. The program is in concept development, with an expected IOC for the first site of 2015. GLOBUS II SLEP The GLOBUS II radar is a dedicated sensor that provides metric tracking and imaging of near-Earth and deep space satellites. It provides the only all-weather, 24/7 space track capability covering 0-90 degrees east longitude. The radar is located in Vardo Norway. It is one of five wide-band imaging radars in the SSN. It provides the most accurate tracking of any space surveillance radar. Radar development began in 1992. The radar was fielded in Norway in 2003, making it 11 years old at IOC. As a result, the radar’s reliability has been deteriorating since it was fielded. Extended down-times for emergency maintenance are expected in the 2010 time frame. AFSPC will begin a SLEP in 2010 to extend the service life of the radar to 2030. SASSA IISelf-Awareness Space Situational Awareness SASSA US space systems are increasingly su-sceptible to a wide variety of threats. The US needs to provide effective protection for space systems. The first step in doing this is to provide effective tactical and strategic situ-ational awareness. The SASSA program will support this first step by providing a com-mon, stand-ards-based solution. This is the most effective and efficient way to integrate a variety of sen-sors and other instruments on a broad set of satellites. SASSA will begin with a tech-nical demonstration and will proceed with methodical risk re-duction activities over the subsequent several years. SASSA I will be a prototype and techni-cal demonstration activity going through the 2013 time frame. It will produce an integrated set of flight hardware that will be operated on-orbit, providing a test bed to allow continued interface testing with new instruments. The interface specification will be developed to enable future technology investments. Lessons learned will be integrated into SASSA II. SASSA I characteristics are: • A two-year development, followed by a one year on orbit demonstration on an operational host • A common interface unit that can handle six instruments such as radar warning receivers • Low technical risk in components • Moderate technical risk in software and interfaces • Define common interface standards for instruments and bus connections • Leave-behind test bed capability SASSA I is not intended to address the full spectrum of threats. SASSA II will be a risk reduction program in the 2010 – 2015 time frame. It will establish policy for future space protection activities. Instruments and interfaces developed in SASSA I will be matured to provide more effective protection. SASSA will end with a finalized busi-ness strategy to guide future activities. An eventual SASSA acquisition program 2014 and beyond will encompass full-scale production of a standardized protection capability. The goal is integrated on-board awareness and protection capabilities for all US space systems.  SPACE SITUATION AWARENESSSpace Situational Awareness SSA is knowledge of all aspects of space related to ope-rations. As the foundation for space control, SSA encompasses intelligence on adversary space operations; surveillance of all space objects and activities; detailed reconnais-sance of specific space assets; monitoring space environmental conditions; monitoring cooperative space assets; and conducting integrated command, control, communications, processing, analysis, dissemination, and archiving activities. Program Element 0305940F, Space Situational Awareness Operations, fields, upgrades, operates and maintains Air Force sensors and information integration capabilities within the SSA network while companion program element 0604425F, Space Situation Awareness Systems, develops new network sensors and improved information integration capabilities across the network. Activities funded in the SSA Operations program element focus on surveillance of objects in earth orbit to aid tasks including satellite tracking; space object identification; tracking and cataloging; satellite attack warning; notification of satellite flyovers to U.S. Forces; space treaty monitoring; and technical intelligence gathering. The Sensor Service Life Extension Programs SLEPsin this program element fund efforts to upgrade and extend the life of operational Space Situation Awareness SSA sensors, as needed. These SLEPs include, but are not limited to, programs that extend the serviceable life of assets and maintain critical capability by replacing aging and increasingly unsustain- able components with modern equipment. SLEPs may incorporate equipment which inher-ently includes technological advances resulting in enhanced or increased capabilities. In addition, the SLEP itself may be designed to increase certain capabilities. The current efforts of Eglin, Haystack Ultra-wideband Satellite Imaging Radar HUSIR, Ground-based Electro Optical Deep Space Surveillance GEODSS, and Globus III are representative of sensor systems upgraded in the SLEP project. As the need arises in the execution year, funds in this project may be used to begin sensor life extension programs on additional efforts. These efforts are in Budget Activity 7, Operational System Development, because they develop modifications for operational SSA sensors.Originally known as HAVE STARE AN/FPS-129, the radar became operational in 1995 at Vandenberg Air Force base in California. While there, it observed several intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM flight tests a as well as two non-intercept tests of the kill vehicle for U.S. National missile defense interceptor then under development IFT-1A and IFT-2. Beginning in late 1998, HAVE STARE was dismantled and moved to Vardo, and renamed Globus II and appears to have become operational in about 2003. A radar named Globus, had been operated since the 1960s by Norway at Vardo, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, and was used to monitor Soviet and Russian ballistic missile flight tests. Outside observers have argued that Globus II is likely to be used to gather information on Russian ballistic missile tests, and that such information could be useful for ballistic missile defense. However, official Norwegian government statements stated that the radar would be used operated by only Norwegian personnel and would be used to track and monitor objects, including space debris in space, research and development, and “Surveillance of the Norwegian area of interest, including the technical gathering of intelligence.” RUSSIAN DEFENSESTRATEGIC LAUNCHERS AND WARHEADSIn January 2017 Russia was estimated to have 528 strategic launchers and about 1800 nuclear warheads. In its March 2017 New START data exchange Russia reported 523 deployed launchers with 1765 New START-accountable nuclear warheads. STRATEGIC ROCKET FORCESThe Strategic Rocket Forces were estimated to have 286 operational missile systems that include missiles that can carry 958 warheads. These include 46 R-36M2, SS-18 missiles, 30 UR-100NUTTH SS-19 missiles, 36 road-mobile Topol, SS-25 systems, 60 silo-based and 18 road-mobile Topol-M, SS-27 systems, and 96 RS-24 missiles. STRATEGIC AVIATIONThe Russian strategic aviation consists of 66 bombers that carry an estimated 200 longrange cruise missiles and bombs. The bombers are 11 Tu-160, Blackjack and 55 Tu-95MS, Bear H. The bombers can carry various modifications of the Kh-55, AS-15 and Kh-101 cruise mis-siles and gravity bombs. Russia operates two satellites of the new-generation early-warning system, EKS, and a network of early-warning radars. STRATEGIC FLEETThe Russian strategic fleet includes 12 operational strategic missile submarines with SLBMs, whose missiles can carry 176 missiles with 752 nuclear warheads. Five operational Project 667BDRM submarines are based in the Northern Fleet. These submarines carry 80 R-29RM, SS-N-23 launchers. One Project 955 submarine with 16 Bulava SLBMs on board is also bas-ed in the Northern Fleet. The only remaining Pacific Fleet base hosts three 667BDR Delta III submarines, which carry 48 R-29R, SS-N-18 missiles and two Project 955 submarines with 32 Bulava SLBMs. RUSSIAN INSTANT-warning systemSThe system that are traditionally considered part of the strategic missile defense, the early-warning system, space surveillance and anti-satellite systems are currently included in the Air and Space Defense Forces, a separate branch of Russia's Armed Forces, subordi-nated directly to the General Staff. INSTANT-WARNING SATELLITESIn November 2015 Russia launched the first satellite of the new-generation early-warning system, EKS. The satellite, Cosmos-2510, is currently undergoing tests. Second spacecraft, Cosmos-2518, was launched in May 2017. The early-warning satellites were transmitting information in real time to the Western command centers at Serpukhov-15, near Kurilovo, Kaluga oblast and Eastern center near Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The information is processed there and transmitted to the command center in Solnechnogorsk.RADARSClick and PlayRussia's Modern Weapon Rearmament Program: The 21st Century Insurance Policy  The Daryal radar in Pechora As of 2017, the land-based component of the instant-warning system included the following radar systems:Radar stationRadarsStatusOlenegorsk RO-1Dnepr/Daugavaoperational Voronezh-VPunder constructionPechora RO-30DaryaloperationalVorkutaVoronezh-VP, -DMunder constructionMishelevka OS-1Dneproperational 2xVoronezh-VPoperationalLekhtusiVoronezh-MoperationalArmavir2xVoronezh-DMoperationalKaliningradVoronezh-DMoperationalBarnaulVoronezh-DMinitial operationsYeniseyskVoronezh-DMinitial operationsOrskVoronezh-Minitial operationsBalkhash, Kazakhstan OS-2DneproperationalBaranovichi, BelarusVolgaoperational In addition to the dedicated early-warning radars, the Don-2N radar of the Moscow missile defense system and the Dunay-3U radar near Chekhov are also used for early-warning and space surveillance. MISSILE DEFENSEThe Moscow missile defense system A-135 is operated by a missile defense division. The main command center of the system and the battle-management radar are located in Sofri-no Moscow oblast. The command center of the system and its radar are undergoing a soft- ware upgrade. The system includes the Don-2N battle-management phased-array radar, command center, and 68 short-range interceptors of the 53T6 Gazelle type. The 32 long-range 51T6 Gorgon interceptors have been removed from the system. The short-range interceptors are deployed at five sites -- Lytkarino 16 interceptors, Sofrino 12, Korolev 12 Skhodnya 16, and Vnukovo 12. Long-range missiles used to be deployed with two units with headquart-ers in Naro-Fominsk-10 and Sergiyev Posad-15. The system was accepted for service in 1995.Space surveillanceSpace surveillance system is operated by the Main space-surveillance command center. To monitor objects on low earth orbits and determines parameters of their orbits, the system uses the the early-warning radar network. The space surveillance network also includes the Krona system at Zelenchukskaya in the North Caucasus, which includes dedicated X-band space surveillance radars. Another system of this type is being deployed near Nakhodka on the Far East. To monitor objects on high-altitude orbits, the space-surveillance system uses optical obser-vations. The main optical observation station, Okno, is located in Nurek, Tajikistan. Its tele-scopes allow detection of object at altitudes of up to 40,000 km. The station began operat-ions in 1999. Space-surveillance tasks are also assigned to observatories of the Russian Aca-demy of Sciences.NO GAPS IN RUSSIAN INSTANT-WARNING COVERAGEAccording to the Russian defense minister, three new instant-warning radars will begin com-bat operations in 2017 - Orsk, Barnaul, and Yeniseisk. In addition, three radars--Baranovichi, Murmansk, and Pechora--have been "upgraded." The radar in Orsk is of the Voronezh-M type. Barnaul and Yeniseisk are Voronezh-DM. The radar in Baranovichi which is in Belarus is an old one-of-a-kind Volga radar. The Daryal radar in Pechora is even older - it's one of the two original Daryal radars built in the 1970s. It will be eventually replaced by the new radar in Vorkuta, it appears that two radars are being built there, Voronezh-SM/77Ya-SM/77Я6-СМ and Voronezh-VP/77Ya-VP/77Я6-ВП. The Murmansk radar is the old Dnepr/Daugava pair in Olenegorsk. Construction of new radar, probably of the Voronezh-VP kind, began there earlier this year. As we can see, the upgrade of the early-warning radar network has been a very successful program. The space segment of the early-warning system, in contrast, appears to be behind the schedule. The old US-KS/US-KMO system ended operations in 2014. The first and only satellite of the new EKS system, Tundra, was launched in November 2015. It appears to be undergoing tests.The new armament program calls for deployment of ten satellites of the EKS system by 2020, but this plan does not seem particularly realistic. It should be noted, however, that for Russia the space-based segment of the early-warning system is not as as critical as for the United States, since it could never really rely on the "dual phenomenology" approach adopted by the United States. This is illustrated on this figure: It shows that in some scenarios SLBMs launched from the Atlantic, satellites don't add much to the warning time. In any event, since Russia doesn't have forward-deployed radars, the radar warning comes to late to provide a useful check of the satellite informa-tion. To deal with the situation, the Soviet Union developed a different mechanism that allowed it to wait for signs of the actual attack such as nuclear explosions before launching its missiles. The arrangement is often referred to as the Dead Hand, since it does involve a certain predelegation of authority as well as the mechanism that ensures that decapitation does not prevent retaliation. The system, however, is not automatic that idea was nixed in the 1980s and requires humans to be involved in the decision to launch. DON-2N IN PUSHKINOThe Don-2N radar is a large missile defence and early warning passive electronically scan- ned array radar outside Moscow, and a key part of the Russian A-135 anti-ballistic missile system designed for the defence of the capital against ballistic missiles. Located in the Push- kino district of Moscow it is a quadrangular truncated pyramid 33 metres 108 ft tall with sides 130 metres 427 ft long at the bottom, and 90 metres 295 ft long at the top. Each of its four faces has an 18 metres 59 ft diameter Ultra high frequency band radar giving 360 degree coverage. The system is run by an Elbrus-2 supercomputer. It has a range of 3700 km for targets the size of a typical ICBM warhead.Click and PlayVORONEZH-M IN KALININGRAD Voronezh radars are the current generation of Russian early-warning radar, providing long distance monitoring of airspace against ballistic missile attack and aircraft monitoring. The first radar, in Lekhtusi near St Petersburg, became operational in 2009. There is a plan to replace older radars with the Voronezh by 2020. The Voronezh radars are described as highly prefabricated meaning that they have a set up time of months rather than years and need fewer personnel than previous generations. They are also modular so that a radar can be brought into partial operation whilst being incomplete.Russia has used the launch of these new radars to raise its concerns about US missile defence in Europe. At the launch of the Kaliningrad radar in November 2011 Russian President Dmitry Medvedev was quoted as saying "I expect that this step [the launch of the radar] will be seen by our partners as the first signal of our country's readiness to make an adequate response to the threats which the missile shield poses for our strategic nuclear forces."THE NUCLEAR TRIAD Excerpts from DOD Directive - DoDD 3150.02, April 24, 2013A nuclear triad refers to the nuclear weapons delivery of a strategic nuclear arsenal which consists of three components: intercontinental ballistic missiles ICBMs, and submarine-launched ballistic missiles SLBMs.traditionally strategic bombers B-52 Stratofortress, B-1 Lancer, B-2 Spirit The purpose of having a three-branched nuclear capability is to significantly reduce the pos-sibility that an enemy could destroy all of a nation's nuclear forces in a first-strike attack; this, in turn, ensures a credible threat of a second strike, and thus increases a nation's nuclear deterrence.U.S. Marines training in Okinawa Japan The Department of Defence PolicyThe President, as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, is the sole au-thority for the employment of U.S. Nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapon systems require special consideration because of their political and military importance, their destructive power, and the potential consequences of an accident or unauthorized act. Assured nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon systems safety, security, and control remain of paramount importance. Nuclear command and control safety and security also remain of paramount importance as stated in DoDD S-5210.81 EnclosuresDIRECTOR, NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY/CHIEF, CENTRAL SECURITY SERVICES DIRNSA/CHCSS.Under the authority, direction, and control of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelli-gence, the DIRNSA/CHCSS provides information assurance products and services for those systems used to transmit, process, store, or display in-formation related to the control and authorized use of nuclear weapons in accordance with DoD 8500.01 REF: DoDD 3150.02, April 24, 2013 Trident II, black re-entry vehicles containing the warheads on the D5 sub-launched missileThe National Security Agency NSA is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communi-cations and foreign signals intelligence, as well as protecting U.S. Government communi-cations and information systems, which involves information security and cryptanalysis and cryptography.The NSA is directed by at least a lieutenant general or vice admiral. NSA is a key com-ponent of the U.S. Intelligence Community, which is headed by the Director of National Intelligence. The Central Security Service is a co-located agency created to co-ordinate intelligence activities and co-operation between NSA and other U.S. Military cryptanalysis agencies. The Director of the National Security Agency serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and Chief of the Central Security Service. By law, NSA's intelligence gathering is limited to foreign communications, although domestic incidents such as the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy have occurred. The National Security Agency is divided into two major missions: the Signals Intelligence Directorate SID, which produces foreign signals intelligence information, and the Information Assur-ance Directorate IAD, which protects U.S. Information systems.The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, is an American heavy penetration strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology. U.S. INTERCEPTORSThe European Phased Adaptive Approach EPAA is designed to deal with the threat posed by Iranian short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles to U.S. Assets, personnel and allies in Europe. It is flexible, initially using mobile radars and interceptors mounted on Aegis-equipped Ticonderoga class cruisers and Arleigh Burke class destroyers. According to the Obama administration, the new plan uses technology that is both “proven” and “costeffec-tive,” and will be able to adapt as threats evolve. This new direction for European missile defense broke with the plans pursued by the Bush administration. The Bush plans had called for deployment of a ground-based missile defen-se system in Europe, similar to the system deployed in California and Alaska. This included bilateral agreements to station ground-based interceptors in Poland and a radar installation in the Czech Republic.Phase 1, DeployedMissile Platforms and NumbersIn March 2011, the USS Monterey was deployed to the Mediterranean Sea. This represented "the first sustained deployment of a ballistic missile defense-capable ship" in support of the European PAA.In fiscal year FY 2012, 113 SM-3 Block IA and 16 SM-3 Block IB interceptors will be delivered and 29 Aegis-equipped BMD ships deployed.The SM-3 IA succesfully intercepted a medium-range ballist missile target in its most recent test on February 13, 2013.SM-3 Variant and NumbersSM-3 Block IA interceptors have a velocity of 3 km/second and are designed to engage short- and medium-range ballistic missiles in the mid-course phase.Block IA has a single color seeker, a 21 inch-diameter booster, and is 13.5 inches in diameter along the rest of the interceptor.Block IA costs between 9 and 10 million per unit.Some SM-2 Block IVs the SM-3 predecessor will also be retained for use against missiles in the terminal phase.Sensors and Combat SystemInitially, the system will use sea-based sensors mounted on the Aegis ships, as well as a forward-based mobile X-band radar on land. The first EPAA radar was deployed in Turkey in late 2011.The mobile X-band radar is the AN/TPY-2 manufactured by Raytheon. The U.S. Is planning to deploy a total of 18 AN/TPY-2 radars. So far, seven have been produced, and two are currently deployed in Israel and Japan.The sensors and interceptors will be brought together under the Aegis combat system. This is a system capable of tracking 100 simultaneous targets. Phase 1 will primarily use Aegis version 3.6.1 software.According to the Defense Science Board 2011, the current Aegis shipboard radar is inadequate to support the EPAA mission, and the future Navy ship-based Air and Missile Defense Radar AMDR is needed.U.S. And European BMD systems are integrated for battle management at Ramstein Air Force Base in Germany.Phase 2, Planned Deployment Date: 2015 Missile Platforms and NumbersPhase 2 will see interceptors taken onto land in the first "Aegis-Ashore" deployment in Romania. Interceptors will also be mounted on an increasing number of Aegis BMD ships.In FY2015-2017, the U.S. Navy plans to have 32 Aegis BMD ships.The first "Aegis-Ashore" site in Romania will be equipped with one land-based Aegis SPY-1 radar and 24 SM-3 missiles.SM-3 Variant and NumbersPhase 2 will include the SM-3 Block IB variant, also with a velocity of 3 km/sec. This interceptor differs from the Block IA in its "seeker" technology, consisting of a two color seeker, or "kill warhead," and improved optics.100 Block IB interceptors would be purchased by this point, to be deployed along with 139 of the Block IA variant.The Block IB is estimated to cost between 12 and 15 million per unit.Sensors and Combat Systems In Phase 2, sensors will be integrated with updated versions of the Aegis combat system. By FY2015 BMD ships will carry versions 3.6.1, 4.0.1, and 5.0.Phase 3, Planned Deployment Date: 2018 Missile Platforms and NumbersPhase 3 will see the introduction of the second “Aegis-Ashore” site in Poland with another SPY-1 radar and 24 SM-3 missiles. This will supplement the deployments already underway at sea and in Romania and will extend coverage over a greater percentage of Europe.By FY2017, there will be a total of 32 Aegis BMD-capable ships.SM-3 Variant and NumbersPhase 3 will include the SM-3 Block IIA. This new variant will be faster than Block I 4.5 km/sec vs. 3 km/sec., with a 21 inch diameter for the whole length of the missile allowing for more fuel and hence a more powerful motor. This will give the system an “enhanced” capability to address intermediate-range ballistic missiles and a “limited” capability to address intercontinental ballistic missiles ICBMs. These faster interceptors could potentially increase coverage to the whole European continent.The United States is collaborating with Japan to jointly develop the Block IIA interceptor. The program is scheduled to begin flight testing in 2014.Improved seeker and optics will be included.19 Block IIAs are scheduled to be purchased by this point; they will complement the 390 Block I variants that are planned for FY2017.Sensors and Combat Systems In Phase 3, the United States will deploy both the Precision Tracking Space System PTSS and Airborne Infrared ABIR sensor platforms. Both of these systems are designed to track significantly larger numbers of incoming missiles, with the goal of being able to track “hundreds” of missiles simultaneously.Aegis BMD ships are scheduled to be equipped with version 5.1 of the combat system software in this time-frame.Phase 4, Cancelled March 2013Missile Platforms and NumbersThe platforms supporting the SM-3 interceptors under Phase 4 would have remained the same as those deployed under Phase 3 – sea-based platforms and the “Aegis-Ashore” deployments in Romania and Poland.SM-3 Variant and NumbersThe SM-3 Block IIB; planned numbers unknown. Was planned to have an improved seeker and a higher performance booster, with a velocity of 5-5.5 km/sec. Was expected to marginally improve the Block IIA’s “limited” capability to counter ICBMs.According to the Defense Science Board 2011, the SM-3 IIB's planned mission to intercept targets prior to the deployment of multiple warheads or penetration aids – known as "early intercept" – requires "Herculean effort and is not realistically achievable, even under the most optimistic set of deployment, sensor capability, and missile technology assumptions.”The Block IIB was in the conceptual stage. Category and DescriptionPresident George W. Bush announced Dec. 17, 2002 that the United States would begin fielding the initial elements of a limited ballistic missile defense system in 2004. As of February 2009, the U.S. Missile Defense Agency MDA reports having deployed 28 ground-based missile interceptors, divided between Fort Greely, Alaska, and Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.The United States also possesses 18 warships equipped with Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense, a system intended to counter short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles as of January 2009. The U.S. Missile defense system relies on four fixed radar facilities at Shemya, Alaska, Beale Air Force Base, California, Fylingdales in the United Kingdom, and Thule, Greenland. The network also includes four mobile X-band radars, and a sea-based X-band radar SB-X, currently deployed in the Pacific Ocean.Developing and deploying ballistic missile defenses ranked high among the priorities of the George W. Bush administration.. In June 2002, Bush withdrew the United States from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile ABM Treaty, which had barred Washington and Moscow from deploying nationwide defenses against long-range ballistic missiles. The administration also aggressively sought foreign partners for the U.S. Program and, during Bush’s last year in office, reached deals to deploy missile interceptors in Poland and a radar installation in the Czech Republic.Still, the technology remains unproven .Intercept tests have involved substitute components in highly scripted scenarios. In thirteen tests, the Pentagon has hit a mock warhead eight times. In the most recent test, conducted on December 5, 2008, the interceptor successfully destroyed the mock warhead; however, the incoming missile failed to deploy countermeasures meant to fool the interceptor into missing its target.Pentagon officials acknowledge that the initial system will be rudimentary. But they argue that some defense is better than none at all. In addition, they assert that the only way to conduct more strenuous and realistic testing of the system is to deploy it..For more than five decades, the United States has intermittently researched and worked on missile defenses. The planned deployment this fall will mark the second time that the United States has moved to deploy a defense against long-range ballistic missiles. The first effort, Safeguard, was shut down within a few months of being declared operational in October 1975 because Congress concluded the defense was too expensive and ineffectual. Under Safeguard, which Washington deployed in a configuration to comply with the ABM Treaty, the United States sought to protect an offensive U.S. Missile base located in North Dakota.The Bush administration inherited seven main missile defense programs, including the ground-based missile interceptor system and two related satellite programs. For the most part, the Bush administration continued work on these same programs, although it recast some, cut others, and added new projects. It canceled one sea-based system—the Navy Area Theater Ballistic Missile Defense System—and significantly down-sized a space-based laser initiative, while commencing new efforts to develop interceptors to attack multiple targets and to strike enemy missiles early in their flights. During the Clinton administration, Republicans repeatedly asserted that the development of working missile defenses was being hindered by a lack of political will, not scientific or engineering challenges. However, several missile defense programs have fallen further behind schedule and suffered setbacks due to technical difficulties under the Bush administration. An aircraft designed to be armed with a powerful laser—known as the Airborne Laser—is now more than two years behind schedule and may be shelved. One of the two inherited satellite programs has been overhauled and renamed, while the other has far exceeded cost and schedule estimates. In addition, the Pentagon’s ground- and sea-based missile interceptors have experienced schedule and testing delays due to problems with their kill vehicles, which are the components intended to seek out and collide with enemy warheads.In general, the Bush administration reorganized missile defense programs, placing all of them under one big tent the Missile Defense Agency rather than working on each one in isolation. And, whereas previous administrations drew a distinction between theater defenses those designed to hit short- and medium-range ballistic missiles and strategic defenses those intended to intercept long-range missiles/ICBMs, the Bush administration did not, claiming to pursue a general research and development program for a layered missile defense comprised of many different types of systems and capabilities. Nevertheless, the Pentagon maintains individual program offices for each system, albeit with an eye toward sharing technology among the systems and exploring how they might operate together. In addition, the Pentagon is actively pushing to expand some of the earlier theater missile defense programs to try and tackle the strategic mission. ICBMs travel farther, faster, and are more likely to employ countermeasures intended to fool defenses than shorter-range missiles. The ABM Treaty permitted the development of theater missile defense systems but prohibited work on nationwide strategic defenses.At this time, only the ground-based interceptor system has been tested against strategic ballistic missile targets, although the Pentagon has started to investigate whether some radars and sensors used in theater systems might also be capable of tracking a strategic ballistic missile. Preliminary findings are encouraging, according to the Pentagon, which has declined to provide specific test results. The Obama administration has expressed general support for the idea of national missile defense, but indicated that some Bush-era programs may be up for review. According the to White House website, the administration “will support missile defense, but ensure that it is developed in a way that is pragmatic and cost-effective; and, most importantly, does not divert resources from other national security priorities until we are positive the technology will protect the American public.” This sentiment has been echoed by Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.The following chart provides a brief look at each of the Pentagon’s major missile defense programs. It contains information on what type of ballistic missile each defense would be intended to counter and at which stage of the enemy missile’s flight an attempted intercept would take place. Also included are Pentagon estimates on when each defense may have an initial, rudimentary capability as well as when it could be fully operational. Ballistic Missile BasicsBallistic missiles are powered by rockets initially but then they follow an unpowered, free-falling trajectory toward the target. They are classified by the maximum distance that they can travel, which is a function of how powerful the missile’s engines rockets are and the weight of the missile’s warhead. To add more distance to a missile’s range, rockets are stacked on top of each other in a configuration referred to as staging. There are four general classifications of ballistic missiles:Short-range ballistic missiles, traveling less than 1,000 kilometers approximately 620 milesMedium-range ballistic missiles, traveling between 1,000–3,000 kilometers approximately 620-1,860 milesIntermediate-range ballistic missiles, traveling between 3,000–5,500 kilometers approximately 1,860-3,410 milesIntercontinental ballistic missiles ICBMs, traveling more than 5,500 kilometersShort- and medium-range ballistic missiles are referred to as theater ballistic missiles, whereas ICBMs or long-range ballistic missiles are described as strategic ballistic missiles. The ABM Treaty prohibited the development of nationwide strategic defenses, but permitted development of theater missile defenses.Ballistic missiles have three stages of flight:The boost phase begins at launch and lasts until the rocket engines stop firing and pushing the missile away from Earth. Depending on the missile, this stage lasts between three and five minutes. During much of this time, the missile is traveling relatively slowly, although toward the end of this stage an ICBM can reach speeds of more than 24,000 kilometers per hour. The missile stays in one piece during this stage.The midcourse phase begins after the rockets finish firing and the missile is on a ballistic course toward its target. This is the longest stage of a missile’s flight, lasting up to 20 minutes for ICBMs. During the early part of the midcourse stage, the missile is still ascending toward its apogee, while during the latter part it is descending toward Earth. It is during this stage that the missile’s warhead, as well as any decoys, separate from the delivery vehicle.The terminal phase begins when the missile’s warhead re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere, and it continues until impact or detonation. This stage takes less than a minute for a strategic warhead, which can be traveling at speeds greater than 3,200 kilometers per hour.Short- and medium-range ballistic missiles may not leave the atmosphere, have separating warheads, or be accompanied by decoys or other countermeasures.Ground-Based Midcourse DefenseReferred to as National Missile Defense by the Clinton administrationProgram & Key ElementsThe key element of the ground-based midcourse defense is a ground-based missile interceptor consisting of a powerful multistage booster and an exoatmospheric kill vehicle EKV, which separates from the booster in space and seeks out its target through radar updates and use of its onboard visual and infrared sensors.The EKV destroys its target by colliding with it. This process is referred to as hit-to-kill.Designed to CounterThe projected system’s goal is to intercept strategic ballistic missile warheads in the midcourse stage.StatusTo date, the system has had eight successful intercept attempts in twelve developmental tests.The most recent test, on Dec. 5, 2008, was successful; however, the target missile failed to deploy counter-measures meant to fool the interceptor into tracking the wrong target.Capability/ScheduleAll the intercept tests to date have involved substitute components in highly scripted scenarios. A C-band transponder on the target provides tracking data used to formulate the system’s initial intercept plan; the target and interceptor fly the same trajectories in every test; the intercepts take place at slower speeds and lower altitudes than what would be expected in a real attack; the interceptor is preprogrammed with information on what the target looks like before the intercept attempt; and the tests do not involve realistic decoys that a potential adversary might use to trick the system into hitting the wrong object. Lt. General Henry Obering, until November 21, 2008, the Director of the MDA, testified before Congress on April 1, 2008 that missile defense tests are “increasing in operational realism.”The Pentagon is currently planning to deploy six missile interceptors, at Fort Greely, Alaska, and four more interceptors at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, by early 2005. Another 10 interceptors are to be deployed at FortGreely before the end of 2005.There are no plans to fire interceptors from FortGreely for testing purposes. .The interceptors under the Clinton plan were to have been supported by a land-based X-band radar, but the Bush administration also developed a sea-based X-band radar SBX. There is currently one SBX radar mounted on a mobile modified oil rig in the Pacific Ocean. SBX was used on Dec. 5, 2008, to help provide tracking data to an interceptor during a successful missile defense test.Bush’s plans also called for the missile interceptors to be supported by an upgraded, although less capable, early-warning radar on ShemyaIsland at the western tip of the Aleutian Islands chain. This radar, known as the Cobra Dane radar, is only be able to track missiles fired from the direction of Asia because the radar is fixed to face northwest.MDA is also exploring the construction of a third missile defense site in Europe. The Bush administration signed a deal with Poland on August 20, 2008, to place ten missile interceptors on Polish territory. The Bush administration also won the approval of the Czech government on April 3, 2008, to build a tracking radar facility in the CzechRepublic.The United States is upgrading two foreign-based, early-warning radars to help track ballistic missiles launched from the direction of the Middle East. One radar Fylingdales is located in the United Kingdom and the other is at Thule Air Base in Greenland. Fylingdales has been upgraded and is operational, while the Thule-based radar will be integrated into the missile defense system by the end of fiscal year 2009.Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense BMDReferred to as Navy Theater Wide by the Clinton administrationProgram & Key ElementsThe key elements of the proposed sea-based defense are a ship-based missile Standard Missile- 3, or SM-3 and the Aegis combat system, an advanced system that can detect and track more than 100 targets simultaneously while directing a ship’s weapons to counter incoming air, surface, and submarine threats.The SM-3 is a hit-to-kill missile comprised of a three-stage booster with a kill vehicle.The SM-3 is considered too slow to intercept a strategic ballistic missile.Designed to CounterInitially, the Aegis BMD is geared toward defending against short-, medium-, and intermediate-range ballistic missiles during their midcourse phase with an emphasis on the ascent stage.The Aegis system is capable of tracking ICBMs, but is not configured to intercept them.A faster SM-3 is being developed that is intended to have some capability to intercept ICBMs. The upgraded SM-3, known as the Block IIA, is not expected until 2015.StatusThe system has a record of fourteen intercepts in eighteen flight tests. The two most recent tests, both in November 2008, were failures. In a November 1 test, two target missiles and two interceptors were launched from Aegis-equipped destroyers in the Pacific Ocean. One interceptor hit its target, but the other did not. In another test, on November 19, 2008, the interceptor lost track of its target seconds before impact.Capability/ScheduleAs of January 2009, the U.S. Navy has eighteen ships outfitted with the Aegis BMD system. Sixteen of these ships are deployed in the Pacific Ocean, leaving two in the Atlantic.Between 2011 and 2021, the Navy hopes to build an Aegis force of 84 ships: 22 cruisers and 62 destroyers.Airborne Laser ABLProgram & Key ElementsThe key element of the proposed ABL system is a modified Boeing 747 plane equipped with a chemical oxygen-iodine laser.The laser beam is produced by a chemical reaction.Designed to CounterAlthough the Pentagon originally aimed to field the ABL against theater ballistic missiles, the Pentagon now contends the ABL may have an inherent capability against strategic ballistic missiles as well.The expanded ABL objective is to shoot down all ranges of ballistic missiles in their boost phase.StatusThe first ABL test plane made its inaugural flight on July 18, 2002. The plane was not equipped with the laser.By 2007, an ABL test plane had successfully tracked a target and hit it with a low-power laser. The target was not a ballistic missile, however, but was mounted on another aircraft.Although Clinton administration plans first projected an ABL intercept attempt to take place in 2003, development delays have led the Pentagon to push back such a test several times. It is now expected to take place in 2009.Capability/ScheduleThe Government Accountability Office estimates that ABL will be operational sometime in 2016-2017.Terminal High Altitude Area Defense THAADProgram & Key ElementsTHAAD’s main components are a missile comprised of a single rocket booster with a separating kill-vehicle that seeks out its target with the help of a specifically designed THAAD radar.The THAAD kill vehicle is hit-to-kill.THAAD missiles are fired from a truck-mounted launcher.Designed to CounterTHAAD’s mission is to intercept short- and medium-range ballistic missiles at the end of their midcourse stage and in the terminal stage. Intercepts could take place inside or outside the atmosphere.StatusThe system had two successful intercept attempts in the summer of 1999 after experiencing six test failures between April 1995 and March 1999.The THAAD missile was redesigned, and testing resumed in July 2006.THAAD has tested successfully five times since being redesigned. In two other tests the interceptor was not launched due to malfunctions of the target missiles.Capability/ScheduleStill in testing and development, however, the first THAAD battery was activated in May 2008.Patriot Advanced Capability-3 PAC-3Program & Key ElementsPAC-3 consists of a one-piece, hit-to-kill missile interceptor fired from a mobile launching station, which can carry 16 PAC-3 missiles.The missile is guided by an independent radar that sends its tracking data to the missile through a mobile engagement control station.Designed to CounterPAC-3 is designed to defend against short- and medium-range ballistic missiles in their terminal stage at lower altitudes than the THAAD system.StatusDuring earlier developmental testing, the system struck nine out of 10 targets.In four, more difficult operational tests between February and May 2002 that involved multiple interceptors and targets, seven PAC-3s were to be fired at five targets. Of the seven PAC-3s, two destroyed their targets, one hit but did not destroy its target, one missed its target, and three others did not launch.PAC-3s destroyed two Iraqi short-range ballistic missiles during the 2003 conflict and shot down a U.S. Fighter jet. Earlier Patriot models also deployed to the region shot down nine Iraqi missiles and a British combat aircraft.Capability/SchedulePAC-3 is now considered operational.As of July 2004, 175 PAC-3 interceptors had been delivered to the Army.Space Tracking and Surveillance System STSSPreviously referred to as Space-Based Infrared System-low SBIRS-lowProgram & Key ElementsSTSS will initially comprise two satellites, but the constellation could expand to as many as 30 satellites.Designed to CounterSTSS satellites are expected to support U.S. Missile defense systems by providing tracking data on missiles during their entire flight.StatusTwo developmental STSS satellites are to be launched in fiscal year 2009. The SBIRS-low program had called for the first launch of a satellite in 2006.Capability/ScheduleThe first next-generation STSS satellite is to be launched in 2011.Two satellites would provide little, if any, operational capability. The Pentagon estimates that at least 18 satellites would need to be deployed to provide coverage of key regions of concern. Worldwide coverage could require up to 30 satellites.Space-Based Infrared System-high SBIRS-highProgram & Key ElementsSBIRS-high will be comprised of four satellites in geosynchronous orbit and sensors on two host satellites in a highly elliptical orbit.Designed to CounterSBIRS-high’s primary objective is to provide early warning of global ballistic missile launches.StatusCurrently there are two SBIRS geosynchronous satellites orbiting the Earth, along with two SBIRS sensors mounted on host satellites in highly elliptical orbit.The program has cost at least 6 billion more than expected, and is several years behind schedule.Capability/ScheduleThe first sensor in highly elliptical orbit—HEO-1—was certified for operations by U.S. Strategic Command in December 2008. The second sensor—HEO-2—is expected to come online in the first quarter of 2009.Kinetic Energy Interceptor KEIProgram & Key ElementsKEI will be comprised of three powerful boosters and a separating kill vehicle. The booster is expected to travel at least six kilometers per second, which is comparable to an ICBM.The kill vehicle will not carry an explosive warhead but is designed to destroy its target through the force of a collision.The Pentagon is developing mobile land- and sea-based versions of KEI, as well as fixed land-based units.Designed to CounterKEI is intended to destroy strategic ballistic missiles during their first minutes of flight when their rocket engines are still burning.StatusOn Dec. 3, 2003, the Pentagon awarded Northrop Grumman a contract worth up to 4.5 billion to develop KEI over eight years.Capability/ScheduleThe first KEI booster flight is planned for 2009.The Pentagon awarded the KEI contract several months after the independent American Physical Society released a study asserting that boost-phase intercepts would be technically possible under very limited circumstances.System TestsGeneral InformationIn April 2011, the United States conducted its first successful SM-3 test against an intermediate range ballistic missile IRBM. The test involved a Block IA missile and an AN/TPY-2 radar. The test was also the first to use remote tracking data; the radar used to track the target was forward-based hundreds of miles away instead of on the ship. Additional tests of the Block IB missile are ongoing.In addition to regular testing of all PAA components, the United States will conduct two operational tests of the entire system’s capacity. These tests will be conducted by the armed forces rather than by the Missile Defense Agency. Both will test the system’s ability to defend against multiple simultaneous incoming missiles. The first operational test took take place in October 2012; the second will occur in FY2015.Test 1 Oct. 25, 2012Targets: 1 medium range ballistic missile MRBM, 2 short range ballistic missiles SRBM, 2 cruise missilesSensor: AN/TPY-2Weapon Systems: Aegis BMD, THAAD, PatriotResults: THAAD intercepted MRBM; PAC-3 intercepted SRBM and cruise missile; Aegis SM-2 IIIA intercepted cruise missile; Aegis SM-3 IA failed to intercept SRBM.Test 2 FY2015Targets: 1 SRBM, 1 MRBM, 1 ICBM, 2 IRBMsSensor: AN/TPY-2Weapon Systems: GMD, Aegis Ashore /Aegis BMD, THAAD, Patriot THE ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILE TREATYThe 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile ABM Treaty is a fundamental element of U.S. Arms control policy. This fact sheet reviews the basic purposes of the ABM Treaty, describes recent ABM Treaty developments, and lists the central elements of the Clinton Administration's approach to the ABM Treaty. President Clinton is strongly committed to the viability of the ABM Treaty. Efforts on the part of this Administration to reaffirm the significance of the Treaty are described below. First, however, it is important to recall the basic framework of the Treaty Basic Framework of the ABM TreatyThe ABM Treaty, which was signed in 1972 by the United States and the Soviet Union, prohibits deployment of a nationwide defense against strategic ballistic missile attack. In the Treaty, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed that each may have two precisely limited ABM deployment areas later limited by mutual agreement to one: to protect its capital or to protect an ICBM launch area. To promote the objectives and implementation of the Treaty, the Parties established the Standing Consultative Commission SCC, which meets at least twice a year. Also the terms of the Treaty specify that a review of the Treaty shall be conducted every five years.In 1974, the Parties to the Treaty agreed by means of a Protocol to reduce the number of permitted ABM deployment areas to one for each side. The Soviet Union chose to maintain and Russia continues to maintain an ABM defense of its national capital, Moscow. The United States chose-Lose to complete its Safeguard ABM system designed to defend its ICBM silo launcher area near Grand Forks, North Dakota; however, this system was operational for a very short time and has been inactive since 1976. Recent ABM Treaty DevelopmentsIn 1993, the Clinton Administration conducted a review of U.S. Policy towards Ballistic Missile Defense and the Future of the ABM Treaty The Administration made a deter-mination that the "traditional" or "narrow" interpretation of the Treaty is the correct one. The Administration therefore reaffirmed that the ABM Treaty prohibits the develop-ment, testing, and deployment of sea-based, air-based, space-based, and mobile land-based ABM systems and components without regard to the technology utilized. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the question of treaty succession arose. The United States has made clear its position that it is willing to accept as Treaty Parties any of the New Independent States NIS that want to be Party to the Treaty. At the same time, the growing threat posed by theater ballistic missiles, and the need to combine effective protection against such threats while avoiding development of an ABM capability, has prompted the U.S. To propose that the demarcation between ABM and non-ABM defenses be clarified. The ABM Treaty itself does not provide clear guidance on this question. This clarification is being negotiated in the Treaty's imple-menting forum, the Standing Consultative Commission. The Fourth Review of the ABM TreatyDuring the regular five-year ABM Treaty Review that took place from September 27 October 1, 1993, in Geneva, the United States explored the issues of ABM/non-ABM demarcation and succession with Russia and the other participating states, Ukraine and Belarus. The United States was reassured during this review that other states shared the view of the Treaty's principal obligations and of the need to strengthen the Treaty. In the Joint Communique that was adopted at the Treaty Review, the partici-pating states concluded that: Commitment to the ABM Treaty was reaffirmed and it was agreed that maintaining the viability of the Treaty in view of political and technological changes remains important. The delegations at the Review advocated continued efforts to strengthen the ABM Treaty The Standing Consultative Commission SCCIn the past, many issues related to theater and strategic defenses have been vigo-rously debated within a number of different fora, including the Standing Consultative Commission. The Standing Consultative Commission, established by the ABM Treaty, remains the forum for negotiation of and agreement on ABM Treaty issues. The United States and Russia, along with other potential successor states, are working together to develop an effective ABM Treaty regime that will provide for multilateral succession to the ABM Treaty, as well as clarify the dividing line between ABM and non-ABM defenses. At recent sessions of the SCC, which were held in Geneva from November 29 - December 17, 1993, January 24 - February 4, 1994, and March 21 - April 21, 1994, the United States presented proposals designed to preserve the viability of the Treaty in light of the political and technological circumstances of the present day The other participating delegations have also introduced their own positions and ideas. Despite some differences of view, the negotiations have demonstrated that there exists a significant degree of commonality in the approach to theater missile defense among SCC participants. There is general agreement 1 that the threat of ballistic missile proliferation is real; 2 that there is a shared interest in being able to defend against this threat; and 3 that the ABM Treaty must be clarified to allow for the field-ing of adequate theater missile defenses. The Clinton Administration's ABM PolicyThe central points of the Administration's ABM policy are as follows:President Clinton has reaffirmed the U.S. Commitment to the ABM Treaty. The Administration considers it indispensable to stability, to the START I and START II reductions, and to longer-term reductions in strategic offensive arms. The Clinton Administration has reaffirmed the "narrow" or "traditional" interpretation of the ABM Treaty as the correct interpretation, i.e., the ABM Treaty prohibits the development, testing, and deployment of sea-based, airbased, space-based, and mobile land-based ABM systems and components without regard to the technology utilized.The Administration has withdrawn the broad revisions to the Treaty previously pro-posed in the SCC which were intended to permit expanded deployment of strategic ABM defenses. The Administration has recognized the need to specify a dividing line between ABM systems limited by the Treaty and non-ABM systems. When the Treaty was nego-tiated, both parties understood that this demarcation was left undefined. The time has come to define it. This will be accomplished by agreement in the SCC, not unilaterally. How the final agreement is formalized, as a legal matter, must properly await the out-come of the negotiations. Finally, the President has directed the Administration to con-sult closely with Congress on these issues. CHRONOLOGYJuly 13, 1993: Narrow Interpretation of the ABM Treaty Endorsed by the Clinton Administration. On July 13,1993, Thomas Graham, Jr., Acting Director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency provided Senator Claiborne Pell D-RI, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, with the Clinton Administration's reaffirmation of the "narrow" or "traditional" interpretation of the ABM Treaty: the ABM Treaty prohibits the development, testing, and deployment of Sea-based, air-based, space-based, and mobile land-based ABM systems and components without regard to the technology utilized. September/October 1993: Fourth Review of the ABM TreatyThe Fourth Review of the ABM Treaty, held between September 27 and October 1 of 1993, reaffirmed the participants' commitment to the ABM Treaty and advocated efforts to strengthen the Treaty. December 1993: U.S. Decision on ABM Treaty Succession The Clinton Administration announced its acceptance of multilateralization of the ABM Treaty and directed that negotiations begin on procedures to implement a multilateral succession. December 1993: U.S. Position on Theater Missile DefenseThe Clinton Administration announced its goal to seek a clear, negotiated, demarcation between ABM and non-ABM systems in order to clarify the ABM Treaty provisions. November 29 - December 17,1993; January 24 - February 4, 1994; and March 21 April 21, 1994:Sessions of the Standing Consultative Commission were held in Geneva, Switzerland, where Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, and the United States discussed proposals to provide for multilateral succession to the ABM Treaty and to clarify the demarcation between ABM systems limited by the Treaty and non-ABM systems.In the light of Finland, Sweden and Ukraine joining NATO. CAN NATO REALY DEFEND OUR FREEDOM?Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a fifth-generation, single-seat, twin-engine, all-weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force.REINFORCING DETERRENCE ON NATO'S EASTERN FLANK Hello friends! The US think-tank RAND with close ties to the military, just completed a very important study with regards to NATO allies defence of the Baltic states Estonia and Latvia. And the result is pretty darn gloomy reading. For my own part I will also ad Norway. NATO today is not able to defend it's most vulnerable states! Please read the report yourself and make up your own opinion. We must fight ISIS and terrorism in all it's uglyness. Keep your eyes and ears wide open and repport anything suspicious. Cheers! A RAND CORPORATION STUDYRussias's Planned Expansion Dwarfs NATO'sNATO CANNOT SUCCESSFULLY DEFEND THE TERRITORY OF ITS MOST EXPOSED MEMBERSIn a series of wargames conducted between summer 2014 and spring 2015, the RAND Corporation examined the shape and probable outcome of a near term Russian invasion of the Baltic states. The games’ findings are unambiguous. As currently postured, NATO cannot successfully defend the territory of its most exposed members. Across multiple games using a wide range of expert participants in and out of uniform playing both sides, the longest it has taken Russian forces to reach the outskirts of the Estonian and/or Latvian capitals of Tallinn and Riga, respectively, is 60 hours. THE SUWALKI GAP NATO'S NIGHTMARE DEFENDING THE BALTIC REPUBLICS A STRATEGIC CHALLENGE FOR NATOThe outcome was, bluntly, a disaster for NATO. Across multiple plays of the game, Russian forces eliminated or bypassed all resistance and were at the gates of or actually entering Riga, Tallinn, or both, between 36 and 60 hours. NATO'S WAR GAMES ANACONDA 2016: PROTECTION OF THE BALTIC STATESVladimir Putin has now attacked neighboring countries three times, with his second invasion of Ukraine still unfolding. His pursuit of greater Russian influence along Moscow’s periphery has ended what was nearly a generation of post–Cold War peace and stability in Europe and revived legitimate fears of Moscow’s intentions among its neighbors. After eastern Ukraine, the next most likely targets for an attempted Russian coercion are the Baltic Republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Like Ukraine, all three spent many years as component republics of the Soviet Union, gaining independence only on its dissolution. The three are also contiguous to Russian territory. Also like Ukraine, Estonia and Latvia are home to sizable ethnic Russian populations that have been at best unevenly integrated into the two countries’ postindependence political and social mainstreams and that give Russia a self-justification for meddling in Estonian and Latvian affairs. This storyline is disturbingly familiar. Unlike Ukraine, the Baltic states are members of NATO, which means that Russian aggression against them would trigger Article V of the North Atlantic Treaty —the collective defense provision according to which an at- tack against any signatory is considered to be an attack against all. This creates an obligation on the part of the United States and its alliance partners to be prepared to come to the assistance of the Baltic states, should Russia seek to actively and violently destabilize or out-and-out attack them. In a September 2014 speech in the Estonian capital of Tallinn, President Barack Obama articulated and strongly affirmed that commitment: [W]e will defend our NATO Allies, and that means every Ally. . . . And we will defend the territorial integrity of every single Ally. . . . Because the defense of Tallinn and Riga and Vilnius is just as important as the defense of Berlin and Paris and London. . Article 5 is crystal clear: An attack on one is an attack on all. . . . We’ll be here for Estonia. We will be here for Latvia. We will be here for Lithuania. You lost your inde- pendence once before. With NATO, you will never lose it again.2 Unfortunately, nei- ther the United States nor its NATO allies are currently prepared to back up the Presi- dent’s forceful words. MILITARY GEOGRAPHY FAVORS RUSSIA During the Cold War, NATO positioned eight Allied corps along the border between West Germany and its Warsaw Pact neighbors to the east. More than 20 allied divisions were stationed to defend that frontier, with many more plan- ned to flow in as reinforcements before and during any conflict see Figure 1. The borders that Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania share with Russia and Belarus are roughly the same length as the one that separated West Germany from the Warsaw Pact. They are, however, defended only by the indigenous forces of the three Baltic states, which muster the rough equivalent of a light infantry brigade each. Since Russia’s invasion of Crimea, other NATO countries, including the United States, have rotated forces through the Baltics, but these have typically been in battalion strength or smaller—hardly enough to defend the republics against a plausible Russian attack. The distances in the theater also favor Russia. From the border to Tallinn along the main highways is about 200 km; depend- ing on the route, the highway versus crow-flight distance to Riga is between about 210 and 275 km. From the Polish border to Riga, on the other hand, is about 325 km as the crow flies; to Tallinn, almost 600 km. And to get anywhere from Poland, NATO forces would have to transit the “Kaliningrad corridor,” a 110- to 150-km-wide stretch of territory between the Russian enclave and Belarus that could be subject to long-range artillery and flank attacks from both sides and would require a commitment of scarce NATO forces to secure. The terrain in the theater is a mix, with large open areas interspersed with forested regions; lakes; and, in some places, sizeable wetlands. Off-road mobility in parts of all three Baltic countries could be difficult, especially for wheeled vehicles. There is, however, a fairly rob- ust network of roads and highways throughout, and there are few large rivers to serve as natural defensive lines and barriers to move- ment. Our analysis sought to account for the effects on movement and combat of this variability in terrain. To be sure, Russia’s army is much smaller than its Soviet predecessor. Today, it can muster for operations in its Western Military District MD—the region adjacent to the Baltic states—about 22 battalions, roughly the same number of divi- sions forward deployed in the non-Soviet Warsaw Pact countries in 1990. These forces appear more than ade- quate, however, to overwhelm whatever defense the Baltic armies might be able to present. CURRENT NATO POSTURE CANNOT SUPPORT ALLIANCE COMMITMENTS Despite President Obama’s bold words in Tallinn, a series of RAND wargames clearly indicates that NATO’s current posture is inadequate to defend the Baltic states from a plausible Russian conven- tional attack. The games employed Russian forces from the Western MD and the Kaliningrad oblast—a chunk of sovereign Russian territory that sits on the northeastern border of Pol- and, along the Baltic Sea coast—totaling approx- imately 27 maneuver battalions in a short-warning attack to occupy either Estonia and Latvia or both and present NATO with a rapid fait accompli. The strategic goal of the invasion was to demonstrate NATO’s inability to protect its most vulnerable members and divide the alliance, reducing the threat it presents from Moscow’s point of view. The scenario assumed about a week of warning, which en- abled NATO to flow some reinforcements into the Baltics— mainly light infantry units that could be speed- ily air transported, along with airpower. Tables 1–4 list the forces with which both sides were credited at D-Day—when the hostilities began. The two sides adopted strategies that were generally similar across the games played. The Red players typically made a main effort toward the Latvian capital of Riga, with a secondary attack that quickly secured the predominantly ethnic Russian areas of northeast Estonia, and then proceeded toward Tallinn. The NATO players, recognizing that they had woefully inadequate forces to mount anything resembling a forward defense, sought instead to use indigenous forces to delay Red’s advance along major axes while positioning the bulk of their forces in and around Tallinn and Riga in an attempt to sustain a minimal lodgment in and around the two capitals. The outcome was, bluntly, a disaster for NATO. Across multiple plays of the game, Russian forces eliminated or bypassed all resistance and were at the gates of or actually entering Riga, Tallinn, or both, between 36 and 60 hours. Four factors appeared to contribute most substantially to this result. First and obviously, the overall correlation of forces was dramatically in Russia’s favor. Although the two sides’ raw numbers of maneuver battalions—22 for Russia and 12 for NATO —are not badly disprop- ortionate, seven of NATO’s are those of Estonia and Latvia, which are extremely light, lack tactical mobility, and are poorly equipped for fighting against an armored opponent. Indeed, the only armor in the NATO force is the light armor in a single Stryker battalion, which is credited with having deployed from Germany during the crisis buildup prior to the conflict. NATO has no main battle tanks in the field. Meanwhile, all Russia’s forces are motorized, mechanized, or tank units. Even their eight airborne battalions are equipped with light armored vehicles, unlike their U.S. Counterparts. Second, Russia also enjoys an overwhelming advantage in tactical and operational fires. The Russian order of battle includes ten artillery battalions. Type Location Qty Maneuver battalions Tank Mechanized infantry Motorized infantry Airborne Naval infantry Total Western MD Western MD Western MD Western MD Kalin- ingrad oblast 4 5 5 8 3 25 Artillery battalions Tube artillery Heavy rocket launcher Medium rocket launcher Total Western MD Western MD Western MD 3 2 5 10 Surface-to-surface missile battalions Iskander short-range ballistic missile Tochka very short-range ballistic missile Tochka very short-range ballistic missile Total Western MD Western MD Kaliningrad oblast 2 2 1 5 Mi-24 Hind attack helicopter battalion 6. Each Russian brigade or regiment in the Western MD or Kaliningrad was assumed to be able to produce one deployable battalion tactical group for the attack. This is consistent with the pattern observed in Russian Army operations in Ukraine. The majority of Russian ground forces in Kaliningrad were assumed to be held in reserve for defense of the enclave, and were not available for offensive operations; they are not listed in this table.France, Poland, Rafale B/C 1, Norway, Stockholm F-16C 1 Canada, Poland CF-18C/D 0.5 Denmark Poland F-16C 1 Total 18.5 a Deployed from Spangdahlem, Germany. Deployed from Aviano Air Base, Italy. We allowed some NATO combat aircraft to be based in Sweden, based on discussions with RAND colleagues who have had informal discussions with Swedish defense officials about scenarios similar to this one. Analytically, this allowed us to explore the possible value of such arrangements. The relative abundance of bases available in Central and Western Europe, especially relative to the size of the deployed force, makes our results relatively insensitive to this assumption, although Swedish basing proved valuable insofar as it allowed NATO combat aircraft access to the battlespace that largely avoided the concentration of modern air defenses located in Kaliningrad. Deployed from Lakenheath Air Base, United Kingdom. One deployed from Lakenheath Air Base, United Kingdom. RUSSIAN FAIT ACCOMPLI CONFRONTS NATO WITH UNPALATABLE CHOICES Russian forces knocking on the gates of Riga and Tallinn in two or three days would present NATO leaders with a set of highly unattractive options. The leaders and people of the Baltic states, who would need to decide whether to defend their capitals, would confront the first quandary. Quality light forces, like the U.S. Airborne infantry that the NATO players typically deployed into Riga and Tallinn, can put up stout resistance when dug into urban terrain. But the cost of mounting such a defense to the city and its residents is typically very high, as the residents of Grozny learned at the hands of the Russian Army in 1999–2000. Furthermore, these forces likely could not be resupplied or relieved before being over- whelmed. Whether Estonia’s or Latvia’s leaders would choose to turn their biggest cities into battlefields—indeed, whether they should—is, of course, uncertain. The second and larger conundrum would be one for the U.S. President and the leaders of the other 27 NATO countries. Under the best of circumstances, this would require a fairly prolonged buildup that could stress the cohesion of the alliance and allow Russia opportunities to seek a political reso- lution that left it in possession of its conquests. Even a successful counteroffensive would almost certainly be bloody and costly and would have political consequences that are unforeseeable in advance but could prove dramatic. Any counteroffensive would also be fraught with severe escalatory risks. If the Crimea experience can be taken as a precedent, Moscow could move rapidly to formally annex the occupied territories to Russia. NATO clearly would not recognize the legitimacy of such a gambit, but from Russia’s per- spective it would at least nominally bring them under Moscow’s nuclear umbrella. By turning a NATO counterattack aimed at liberating the Baltic republics into an “invasion” of “Russia,” Moscow could generate unpredictable but clearly dangerous escalatory dynamics. On a tactical level, a counteroffensive campaign into the Baltics would likely entail the desire, and perhaps even the necessity, of striking targets, such as long-range surface-to-air defenses and surface-to-surface fires systems, in territory that even NATO would agree constitutes “Russia.” Under Russian doctrine, it is unclear what kinds or magnitudes of conventional attacks into Russian territory might trigger a response in kind or worse, but there would certainly be concern in Washington and other NATO capitals about possible escalatory implications. Finally, it is also unclear how Russia would react to a successful NATO counteroffensive that threatened to decimate the bulk of its armed forces along its western frontier; at what point would tactical defeat in the theater begin to appear like a strategic threat to Russia herself? The second option would be for NATO to turn the escalatory tables, taking a page from its Cold War doctrine of “massive retaliation,” and threaten Moscow with a nuclear response if it did not withdraw from the territory it had occupied. This option was a core element of the Alliance’s strategy against the Warsaw Pact for the duration of the latter’s existence and could certainly be called on once again in these circumstances. The deterrent impact of such a threat draws power from the implicit risk of igniting an escalatory spiral that swiftly reaches the level of nuclear exchanges between the Russian and U.S. Homelands. Unfortunately, once deterrence has failed—which would clearly be the case once Russia had crossed the Rubicon of attacking NATO member states—that same risk would tend to greatly undermine its credibility, since it may seem highly unlikely to Moscow that the United States would be willing to exchange New York for Riga. Coupled with the general direction of U.S. Defense policy, which has been to de-emphasize the value of nuclear weapons, and the likely unwillingness of NATO’s European members, especially the Baltic states themselves, to see their continent or countries turned into a nuclear battlefield, this lack of believability makes this alternative both unlikely and unpal- atable. The third possibility would be to concede, at least for the near to medium term, Russian control of the territory they had occupied. Under this scenario, the best outcome would likely be a new cold war, with the 21st century’s version of the old “inner German border” drawn somewhere across Lithuania or Latvia. The worst be would be the collapse of NATO itself and the crumbling of the cornerstone of Western security for almost 70 years.Cruice missiles attached to a B52 pylonNATO NEEDS HEAVY FORCES TO DENY RUSSIA A QUICK VICTORY In addition to assessing the viability of NATO’s current posture, our games explored enhancement options for creating a force that could deny Russia a swift victory in the first three days. Quality light forces, like the U.S. Airborne infantry that the NATO players typically deployed into Riga and Tallinn, can put up stout resistance when dug into urban terrain. But the cost of mounting such a defense to the city and its residents is typically very high. Avoiding the fait accompli is valuable because it begins to present Russia with the risk of a conventional defeat and thereby is at least the beginning of a more credible deterrent. On the one hand, Russia today looks to its northwest and sees little between its forces and the Baltic Sea but highway and the prospect of forcing NATO into the three-sided corner described above. Our goal was to devise a posture that would present an alternative landscape: one of a serious war with NATO, with all the dangers and uncertainties such an undertaking would entail, including the likelihood of ultimate defeat at the hands of an alliance that is mater- ially far wealthier and more powerful than Russia. Nations can be tempted or can talk themselves into wars that they believe will be quick, cheap, victories that are “over by Christmas” but, historically, are far less likely to choose to embark on conflicts that they expect to be protracted, costly, and of uncertain outcome. We set out to identify at least one plausible NATO posture that would change Moscow’s calculus in this scenario from the former to the latter. Our results strongly suggest that a posture that could credibly deny the fait accompli can be achieved without fielding anything like the eight corps that defended NATO’s Cold War border with the Warsaw Pact. A total force of six or seven brigades, including at least three heavy brigades, backed by NATO’s superior air and naval power and supported by adequate artillery, air defenses, and logistics capabilities, on the ground and ready to fight at the onset of hostilities appears able to avoid losing the war within the first few days. Not all these forces would need to be forward stationed. Given even a week of warning, NATO should be able to deploy several brigades of light infantry to the Baltics. Soldiers from the U.S. 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team in Italy and the 82nd Airborne Division in North Carolina could be airlifted in within a few days, as could similar units from other NATO countries, including the United Kingdom and France. U.S. Army combat aviation assets rotationally based in Germany could self-deploy to provide some mobile antiarmor firepower, but by and large, these fast-arriving forces would be best suited to digging in to defend urban areas. In our games, the NATO players almost universally chose to employ them in that way in and immediately around Tallinn and Riga. What cannot get there in time are the kinds of armored forces required to engage their Russian counterparts on equal terms, delay their advance, expose them to more frequent and more-effective attacks from air and land-based fires, and subject them to spoiling counterattacks. Coming from the United States, such units would take, at best, several weeks to arrive, and the U.S. Army currently has no heavy armor stationed in Europe. America’s European allies have minimal combat-ready heavy forces. At the height of the Cold War, West Germany fielded three active corps of armored and mechanized units; today, its fleet of main battle tanks has shrunk from more than 2,200 to around 250. The United Kingdom is planning on removing all its permanently stationed forces from Germany by 2019; currently, only one British brigade headquarters, that of the 20th Armoured Infantry, remains in continental Europe, and the British government is committed to its withdrawal as a cost-saving measure. The quickest-responding NATO heavy armor force would likely be a U.S. Combined arms battalion, the personnel for which would fly in and mate up with the prepositioned equipment of the European Activity Set stored in Grafenwoehr, Germany. Getting this unit into the fight is a complicated process that will not be instantaneous. Breaking out the equipment—24 M-1 main battle tanks, 30 M-2 infantry fighting vehicles, assorted support vehicles—preparing it for movement, transporting it by rail across Poland, offloading it, and roadmarching it forward into the battle area are unlikely to take less than a week to 10 days. Providing adequate heavy armor early enough to make a difference is the biggest challenge to NATO’s ability to prevent a rapid Russian overrun of Estonia and Latvia. It is critical to emphasize that this relatively modest force is not sufficient to mount a forward defense of the Baltic states or to sustain a defense indefinitely. It is intended to keep NATO from losing the war early, enabling but not itself achieving the Alliance’s ultimate objectives of restoring the territorial integrity and political independence of its members. But it should eliminate the possibility of a quick Russian coup de main against the Baltic states, enhancing deter- rence of overt, opportunistic aggression. There are several options for posturing the necessary heavy forces, each carrying different combinations of economic costs and political and military risks. For example, NATO could permanently station fully manned and equipped brigades forward in the Baltic states; could preposition the equipment in the Baltics, Poland, or Germany and plan to fly in the soldiers in the early stages of a crisis; could rely on rotational presence; or could employ some combination of these approaches. The next phase of our analysis will explore a range of these options to begin assessing their relative strengths and weaknesses.It is unclear whether denial of the prospect for a rapid victory would suffice to deter Russia from gambling on an attack on the “Baltic three,” were it inclined to contemplate one. What seems certain is that NATO’s current posture, which appears to offer Moscow the opportunity for a quick and relatively cheap win, does not. It is also important to point out that, critical though they are, maneuver brigades are insufficient in and of themselves. Armor and infantry battalions must be adequately supported with artillery, air defense, logistics, and engineering. Over the past 15 years, the Army has reduced the amount of artillery organic to its divisions and has essentially stripped out all air defense artillery from its maneuver forces. Further, there are presently no fires brigades in Europe able to augment the modest number of guns at the brigade and battalion level. This is in marked contrast to Russian tables of organization and equipment, which continue to feature substantial organic fires and air defense artillery, as well as numerous independent tube and rocket artillery and surface-to-air missile units. This disparity has had substantial impacts in our wargames. In one instance, in which NATO was playing with an enhanced force posture, the Blue team sought to use a U.S. Armor brigade combat team ABCT to fight what was in essence a covering force action to delay the advance of a major Russian thrust through Latvia. A critical element of such a tactic is the use of fires to cover the maneuver elements as they seek to disengage and move back to their next defensive position. In this case, however, the ABCT was so thoroughly outgunned by the attacking Red force, which was supported by multiple battalions of tube and rocket artillery in addition to that of the battalion tactical groups themselves, that the battalion on one flank of the brigade was overwhelmed and destroyed as it sought to break contact, and the rest were forced to re- treat to avoid the same fate. The lack of air defenses in U.S. Maneuver forces showed up in another game, in which two arriving NATO heavy brigades were organized into a counter- attack aimed at the flank of a Russian thrust toward Riga. Because the Russian Air Force is sufficiently powerful to resist NATO’s quest for air superi- ority for multiple days, the Red team was able to create “bubbles” in space and time to launch massed waves of air attacks against this NATO force. The absence of short-range air defenses in the U.S. Units, and the minimal defenses in the other NATO units, meant that many of these attacks encountered resistance only from NATO combat air patrols, which were overwhelmed by sheer numbers. The result was heavy losses to several Blue battalions and the disruption of the counter- attack. This highlights a critical finding from our analysis: A successful defense of the Baltics will call for a degree of air-ground synergy whose intimacy and sophistication recalls the U.S. Army–U.S. Air Force “AirLand Battle” doctrine of the 1980s. The games have repeatedly identified the necessity for allied ground forces to maneuver within the envelope of friendly air cover and air support and for ground fires to play an integral role in the suppression campaign against Russia’s advanced surface-to-air defens- es. Against an adversary, such as Russia, that poses multidimensional threats, airpower must be employed from the outset of hostilities to enable land operations, and land power must be leveraged to enable airpower. Preventing a quick Russian victory in the Baltics would also require a NATO command structure able to plan and execute a complex, fast-moving, highly fluid air-land campaign. This is not something that can safely be left to a pickup team to “do on the day”; it requires careful preparation. What cannot get there in time are the kinds of armored forces required to engage their Russian counterparts on equal terms, delay their advance, expose them to morefrequent and more-effective attacks from air- and land-based fires, and subject them to spoiling counterattacks.NATO corps that defended the inner German border during the Cold War each possessedadmittedly to different degrees in some cases, the ability to plan for and fight the forces they would command in wartime. Tactical and operational schemes of maneuver were developed and rehearsed; logistics support was planned; the reception, staging, and onward integration of reinforcing forces were laid out and, if never practiced in full, tested to an extent that lent confidence that procedures would work reasonably well when called upon. Traditionally, the level of planning called for in the initial phase of the defense has been the province of a U.S. Corps. At the height of the Cold War, two Army corps under the operational command of 7th Army had planning responsibilities for Europe; today, none do. The Army should consider standing up a corps headquarters in Europe to take responsibility for the operational and support planning needed to prepare for and execute this complex combined arms campaign, as well as a division headquarters to orchestrate the initial tac- tical fight, to be joined by others as forces flow into Europe. Follow-on operations to rel- ieve and reinforce the initial defense and restore the prewar borders could well require at least one additional corps headquarters, which could be provided by a NATO partner or drawn from one of the Alliance’s nine preexisting corps. THE PRICE OF DETERRING DISASTER For more than 40 years, NATO’s member states made enormous investments to deter a potential Soviet attack on Western Europe. Today, the West confronts a Russia that has violently disrupted the post–Cold War European security order. Led by a man who has characterized the fall of the Soviet Union as the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the 20th century, Russia has at the very least put on hold the vision of a “Europe whole and free.” To the extent that Moscow believes that NATO poses a threat to its ability to exercise necessary influence along its periphery, the presence of the Baltic NATO members along its borders may well seem unacceptable. Since the early 1990s, the United States and its NATO partners have shaped their forces based on the belief that Europe had become an exporter of security, and for more than two decades that assumption held true. Unfortunately, the usually unspoken accompanying assumption—that the West would see any disruption to that status quo coming far enough in advance to reposture itself to meet any challenge that might emerge—appears to have missed the mark. Instead, Russia’s aggressiveness and hostility have caught NATO still resetting itself in a direction that is making it less prepared to deal with Moscow’s behavior. The first step to restoring a more-robust deterrent is probably to stop chipping away at the one that exists. If NATO wishes to position itself to honor its collective security commitment to Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, its members should first hit the pause button on further steps that reduce its ability to do so. While some ongoing actions may be too far advanced to stop, the United Kingdom and the United States should evaluate whether additional withdrawals of forces from Germany are wise, given the changed circumstances. All members should reassess their force structures and postures with an eye toward deter- mining whether there are affordable near-term actions that can be taken that could in- crease the Alliance’s capability to respond to a threat to the Baltics and thereby strengthen deterrence of such a threat. These measures need not be limited to strictly military ones. For example, one challenge NATO would face in the event of a Baltic crisis would be moving heavy equipment and supplies from storehouses and ports in Western Europe east to Pol- and and beyond. A successful defense of the Baltics will call for a degree of air-ground synergy whose intimacy and sophistication recalls the U.S. Army–U.S. Air Force “AirLand Battle” doctrine of the 1980s. Substantial investments may be necessary to facilitate these flows, investments that becau- se they also benefit the civilian economy— may prove more politically palatable than direct expenditures on troops and weapons. But troops and weapons are also needed, and it verg- es on disingenuous for a group of nations as wealthy as NATO to plead poverty as an excuse for not making the marginal investments necessary to field a force adequate at the very least to prevent the disaster of a Russian coup de main. Buying three brand-new ABCTs and adding them to the U.S. Army would not be inexpen- sive—the up-front costs for all the equipment for the brigades and associated artillery, air defense, and other enabling units runs on the order of 13 billion. However, much of that gear—especially the expensive Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles—already exists. Some is available due to recent cuts in Army force structure; there is also equipment in long-term storage, and some could be transferred from Reserve Component units, if needed. So, although there may be some costs to procure, upgrade, or make serviceable existing equipment—as well as to transition units from one type to another—it is likely much less than 13 billion. The annual operating and support costs for three ABCTs plus enabling units—the price tag to own and operate the units—are roughly 2.7 billion.23 That is not a small number, but seen in the context of an Alliance with an aggregate gross domestic product of more than 35 trillion and combined yearly defense spending of more than 1 trillion, it is hard to say that it is a fortiori unaffordable,24 especially in comparison to the potential costs of failing to defend NATO’s most exposed and vulnerable allies—of potentially inviting a devastating war, rather than deterring it. It can be hoped that Russia’s double aggression against Ukraine is the result of a unique confluence of circumstances and that it does not portend a more generally threatening approach to the West. However, President Putin clearly appears to distrust NATO and harbor resentments toward it. His rhetoric suggests that he sees the Alliance’s presence on Russia’s borders as something approaching a clear and present danger to his nation’s security. Aggressive acts, angry—even paranoid— rhetoric, and a moderate but real military buildup combine to signal a situation where it may be less than prudent to allow hope to substitute for strategy. Taking measured steps to bolster NATO’s defensive posture in the Baltic states is not committing the United States and Europe to a new Cold War and does not signal irreversible hostility toward Russia. It is instead due diligence that sends a message to Moscow of serious commitment and one of reassurance to all NATO members and to all U.S. Allies and partners worldwide. The first step to restoring a more-robust deterrent is probably to stop chipping away at the one that exists. If NATO wishes to position itself to honor its collective security commitment to Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, its members should first hit the pause button on further steps that reduce its ability to do so. Methodology and Data: The research documented in this report was conducted in a series of wargames conducted between the summer of 2014 and early spring 2015. Players included RAND analysts and both uniformed and civilian members of various Department of Defense organizations, including the U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, Joint Staff, U.S. Army in Europe, and U.S. Air Forces, Europe, as well as NATO Naval Command, Europe. RAND developed this map-based tabletop exercise because existing models were ill-suited to represent the many unknowns and uncertainties surrounding a conventional military campaign in the Baltics, where low force-to-space ratios and relatively open terrain meant that maneuver between dispersed forces—rather than pushing and shoving between opposing units arrayed along a linear front—would likely be the dominant mode of combat. World War III Starts Here The Hottest Place on Planet Earthis not North Korea, Iran, and Taiwan, but this Radar Installation already targeted for destruction by the Russian Air Force. The total obliviating of Globus II and Globus III "Space Fence" Radar installations on the tiny Vardø Island at the very tip of Northern Norway will be the first sign of a rapidly progressing World War III Globus 3 Illustration by Harald DahleTu-22M3Backfire bomber: Close encounters with the Globus III installation U.S. Space Fence on Vardo Island, Northern Norway We welcome U.S. Space Fence in Norway, but will it be to the best of the population who will be caught in the middle? GLOBUS 3 on Vardo Island will be one of the very first targets in a potential new conflict with Russia. Artwork by Petrofilm.The Norwegian leadership lives in the delusion that a unilateral bond with the US will save the country. The permit for the use of thermonuclear bombs of type B61-12 from Norwegian soil, owned and operated by the Americans, will be a guarantee for Norway, the management believes. Yes, it is a guarantee, but for the collective downfall of the Norwegian people. Norway has around 5.3 million inhabitants in an area swelled in from Oslo to Rome. Only half of Norway's population is strong enough to take the first hours of the war. The rest of the population is elderly, sick, children, pregnant, in prisons and in miserable form. Norway is a peacetime territory, but it is almost impossible to go to war. To that the country is too far, too cumbersome and too sparsely populated, and with a defense that is as good as defeated already. NATO started as a defense alliance but has become an attack alliance that has called in Russia and sees the country as its greatest enemy. Norway has hung on and gone from being a friendly neighbor to Russia, to becoming an offensive and provocative neighbor. This does not worry today's management in Norway. But it should, because Norway's ability to save its population lies in a good relationship with the neighbor in the east.NATO EXPAND EASTWARDUS STRYKERs IN POLANDHello friends! In a September 2014 speech in the Estonian capital of Tallinn, President Ba- rack Obama articulated and strongly affirmed that commitment: We will defend our NATO Allies, and that means every Ally. And we will defend the territorial integrity of every single Ally. Because the defense of Tallinn and Riga and Vilnius is just as important as the defense of Berlin and Paris and London. This view is good in theory, but is it wise to risk a global nu- clear melt down because of Tallin and Riga? I don't think so.General Dynamics Land Systems, IAV, Interim Armored Vehicle Stryker.The newly published RAND Report underlines that despite President Obama’s bold words in Tallinn, a series of RAND wargames clearly indicates that, NATO’s current posture is inadequate to defend the Baltic states from a plausible Russian conventional attack. The games employed Russian forces from the Western MD and the Kaliningrad oblast, a chunk of sovereign Russian territory that sits on the northeastern border of Poland, along the Baltic Sea coast, totaling 27 maneuver battalions in a short-warning attack to occupy either Estonia and Latvia or both and present NATO with a rapid fait accompli.General Dynamics Land Systems, IAV, Interim Armored Vehicle Stryker. In a September 2014 speech in the Estonian capital of Tallinn, President Barack Obama arti culated and strongly affirmed that commitment: We will defend our NATO Allies, and that means every Ally. And we will defend the territorial integrity of every single Ally. Because the defense of Tallinn and Riga and Vilnius is just as important as the defense of Berlin and Paris and London. This view is good, in theory! But is it wise to risk a global nuclear meltdown because of Tallin, Riga and Vilnius? I don't think so! And I think I have Germany with me on this. "ANAKONDA-16"A new missile crisis is building, in a mirror image of that which led the Soviet Union in 1962 to deploy nuclear warheads in Cuba, at the doorstep of the United States. Today, the situation is the reverse. At the time, NATO was fighting the Warsaw Pact, today, it is organizing a summit in Warsaw! THE NATO POLAND BALTIC EXERCISEThe largest war game in eastern Europe since the end of the cold war has started in Poland, as Nato and partner countries seek to mount a display of strength as a response to concerns about Russia’s assertiveness and actions. The 10-day military exercise, involving 31,000 troops and thousands of vehicles from 24 countries, has been welcomed among Nato’s allies in the region, though defence experts warn that any mishap could prompt an offensive reaction from Moscow.A defence attache at a European embassy in Warsaw said the “nightmare scenario” of the exercise, named Anaconda-2016, would be “a mishap, a miscalculation which the Russians construe, or choose to construe, as an offensive action”.NATO IS CARRYING OUT A PROVOCATIVE POLICY OF “ENCIRCLEMENT”Polish Honor Guard, ANACONDA-16The continuous eastward expansion of NATO towards the borders of Russia, despite the guarantees given by the West to Gorbachov in 1989 that this would not happen; The deployment of the Aegis anti-missile defense system in Romania, Poland, Turkey and Spain. These weapons, equipped with MK41 launchers, can be used for defensive missions air, land, sea, but also for offensive attacks with nuclear weapons. The planned permanent rotational deployment in the Baltic States, Poland and Romania, of four battalions of 1,000 troops each, and heavy military equipment; The creation of a “Nordic Front” against Russia, comprised of an alliance of NATO members Denmark, Iceland and Norway, and of NATO's “Partnership for Peace” Sweden and Finland The modernization of nuclear weapons, in particular the B61-12 bomb and the Long Range Standoff LRSO Cruise Missiles, based in Germany. U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein said of these weapons: "The so-called improvements to this weapon seemed to be designed... To make it more usable, to help us fight and win a limited nuclear war." To escape the current countdown to nuclear war, we also call on our government to create without delay the conditions for a new global peace and security architecture, based on the win-win cooperation proposed by the BRICS, cooperation which Europe and the United States, in their own interests, should join in. The vast efforts we deployed in the 20th Centu- ry for war, must be mobilized today for peace and mutual development! The German Bundeswehr is planning to deploy its soldiers in Lithuania as part of NATOs mission aimed at containing possible Russian aggression Russian Permanent Representative to NATO Alexander Grushko’s interview with Izvestia, published April 1, 2016 Alexander Grushko Question: How does Russia assess the U.S. Intention to deploy another armour brigade in Eastern Europe? Alexander Grushko: We need to see how these intentions play out. Nevertheless, we assess these plans not only in terms of what the United States can additionally deploy on NATO’s “eastern flank” but also in the context of the aggregate measures that have already been taken. Regarding the new force deployment pattern on NATO’s “eastern periphery”, this involves a qualitative change in the configuration of this presence and a significant deterioration of the situation in the military sphere. Presently, US forces are constantly rotated in six Eastern European countries and there are continuous exercises with the participation not only of US but also European contingents. The naval grouping in the Baltic has been reinforced. Storage depots have been set up for equipment used by rotation units during joint exercises with national contingents. Troop reinforcement infrastructure continues to be upgraded. Military activity in the airspace along our borders has intensified. The number of reconnaissance flights has drastically increased. There is constant talk about increasing the military presence in the Black Sea. All of this goes to show that the “containment” policy that was initially declared in word is now followed up by specific military-planning decisions. This creates a long-term negative trend not only for regional security but also for European security as a whole. Another problem is that no one knows how far this process will go. The decision to deploy an additional armour brigade is announced at a time when nothing critical is happening with regard to NATO interests on the “eastern flank”.It is becoming increasingly obvious that these military preparations have no basis in reality. There is no direct threat either to Poland or to the Baltic countries but the information campaign continues to gather momentum. Absurd horror stories to the effect that Russia would have attacked the Baltic countries if NATO had not taken measures and deployed its troops in the region continue making the rounds. All indications point to a serious change for the worse in the military situation. Question: Are there grounds to say that NATO actions violate agreements with Russia, in particular the Founding Act of 1997? Alexander Grushko: An additional armour brigade to reinforce the “eastern flank” is in conflict with the spirit of the Founding Act. Meanwhile, NATO alleges that all military efforts are in full compliance with the Russia-NATO Founding Act whereby NATO pledged not to deploy additional significant combat forces on a permanent basis. We have stated more than once that continuous rotation does not differ in any way from constant deployment. I should point out, however, that two bases of the European segment of the global missile defence system are under construction. The base in Romania is now at combat readiness and is due to be placed under NATO command in May. The construction of the facility in Poland is in progress. The bases definitely fall under the definition of “significant” and have a permanent character. Question: In what way will the strengthening of the US contingent impact Russia-NATO collaboration? Alexander Grushko: In no way. There is no collaboration. In April 2014, NATO countries took the decision to halt all collaboration with Russia and all projects were put on hold. Today, we do not have a positive agenda with NATO. We often hear NATO representatives say they are ready for dialogue. Dialogue through the permanent mission continues. We have good contacts with the alliance leadership, with all missions to NATO, but these contacts cannot substitute for the Russia-NATO collaboration that was built over the years to ensure the security of all Russia-NATO Council members in a number of areas. We worked together on Afghanistan. We did a good deal of work in fighting terrorism not only in terms of threat assessment and sharing experience but also in implementing projects designed to rule out tragedies like the one in Brussels. Question: What is the status of the Russia-NATO Council activity? Alexander Grushko: Formally, the council activity has not been halted. Upon our initiative, it was convened for an emergency meeting in June 2014 in connection with the start of a punitive operation by the Kiev authorities in southeastern Ukraine. No meetings have been held since. Work is underway for the next meeting but no decision has been made yet. Question: Can the CFE Treaty be invoked in the present situation? Alexander Grushko: The US military buildup is proceeding amid the erosion of the arms control regime in Europe. The CFE regime was the cornerstone of European security. It set ceilings on the main categories of weapon systems and ensured effective information-sharing and an intrusive verification regime. In the early 1990s, it became clear that the treaty did not measure up to the new political realities and adaptation talks began. These efforts ended up with the signing of the Adapted CFE Treaty. It was more in sync with the new realities. In particular, it envisioned specific mechanisms of using political tools in case forces are deployed above the established quota limits. In 2004, Russia ratified the treaty, but NATO countries dragged their feet on the ratification under contrived pretexts. As a result, it did not come into effect. As the CFE Treaty has lost contact with reality, there is reason to say that the arms control regime in Europe is now dead. This further compounds the security situation. However, this choice was made by the NATO countries themselves.
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